CUPS Software Programmers Manual


CUPS-SPM-1.1.21
Easy Software Products
Copyright 1997-2004, All Rights Reserved

Table of Contents



Preface 1 - Printing System Overview 2 - The CUPS API 3 - Writing Filters 4 - Writing Printer Drivers 5 - Writing Backends A - Software License Agreement B - Constants C - Structures D - Functions

Preface

This software programmers manual provides software programming information for the Common UNIX Printing System ("CUPS") Version 1.1.21.

System Overview

CUPS provides a portable printing layer for UNIX®-based operating systems. It has been developed by Easy Software Products to promote a standard printing solution for all UNIX vendors and users. CUPS provides the System V and Berkeley command-line interfaces.

CUPS uses the Internet Printing Protocol ("IPP") as the basis for managing print jobs and queues. The Line Printer Daemon ("LPD") Server Message Block ("SMB"), and AppSocket (a.k.a. JetDirect) protocols are also supported with reduced functionality. CUPS adds network printer browsing and PostScript Printer Description ("PPD") based printing options to support real-world printing under UNIX.

CUPS includes an image file RIP that supports printing of image files to non-PostScript printers. A customized version of GNU Ghostscript 7.05 for CUPS called ESP Ghostscript is available separately to support printing of PostScript files within the CUPS driver framework. Sample drivers for Dymo, EPSON, HP, and OKIDATA printers are included that use these filters.

Drivers for thousands of printers are provided with our ESP Print Pro software, available at:

    http://www.easysw.com/printpro/

CUPS is licensed under the GNU General Public License and GNU Library General Public License. Please contact Easy Software Products for commercial support and "binary distribution" rights.

Document Overview

This software programmers manual is organized into the following sections:

Notation Conventions

Various font and syntax conventions are used in this guide. Examples and their meanings and uses are explained below:

Example   Description
 
lpstat
lpstat(1)
   The names of commands; the first mention of a command or function in a chapter is followed by a manual page section number.
 
/var
/usr/share/cups/data/testprint.ps
    File and directory names.
 
Request ID is Printer-123    Screen output.
 
lp -d printer filename ENTER    Literal user input; special keys like ENTER are in ALL CAPS.
 
12.3   Numbers in the text are written using the period (.) to indicate the decimal point.

Abbreviations

The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual:

Other References

1 - Printing System Overview

This chapter provides an overview of how the Common UNIX Printing System works.

The Printing Problem

For years the printing problem has plagued UNIX. Unlike Microsoft® Windows® or Mac OS, UNIX has no standard interface or system in place for supporting printers. Among the solutions currently available, the Berkeley and System V printing systems are the most prevalent.

These printing systems support line printers (text only) or PostScript printers (text and graphics), and with some coaxing they can be made to support a full range of printers and file formats. However, because each varient of the UNIX operating system uses a different printing system than the next developing printer drivers for a wide range of printers and operating systems is extremely difficult. That combined with the limited volume of customers for each UNIX varient has forced most printer vendors to give up supporting UNIX entirely.

CUPS is designed to eliminate the printing problem. One common printing system can be used by all UNIX varients to support the printing needs of users. Printer vendors can use its modular filter interface to develop a single driver program that supports a wide range of file formats with little or no effort. Since CUPS provides both the System V and Berkeley printing commands, users (and applications) can reap the benefits of this new technology with no changes.

The Technology

CUPS is based upon an emerging Internet standard called the Internet Printing Protocol. IPP has been embraced by dozens of printer and printer server manufacturers and is supported by Microsoft Windows 2000.

IPP defines a standard protocol for printing as well as managing print jobs and printer options like media size, resolution, and so forth. Like all IP-based protocols, IPP can be used locally or over the Internet to printers hundreds or thousands of miles away. Unlike other protocols, however, IPP also supports access control, authentication, and encryption, making it a much more capable and secure printing solution than older ones.

IPP is layered on top of the Hyper-Text Transport Protocol ("HTTP") which is the basis of web servers on the Internet. This allows users to view documentation, check status information on a printer or server, and manage their printers, classes, and jobs using their web browser.

CUPS provides a complete IPP/1.1 based printing system that provides Basic, Digest, and local certificate authentication and user, domain, or IP-based access control. TLS encryption will be available in future versions of CUPS.

Jobs

Each file or set of files that is submitted for printing is called a job. Jobs are identified by a unique number starting at 1 and are assigned to a particular destination, usually a printer. Jobs can also have options associated with them such as media size, number of copies, and priority.

Classes

CUPS supports collections of printers known as classes. Jobs sent to a class are forwarded to the first available printer in the class.

Filters

Filters allow a user or application to print many types of files without extra effort. Print jobs sent to a CUPS server are filtered before sending them to a printer. Some filters convert job files to different formats that the printer can understand. Others perform page selection and ordering tasks.

CUPS provides filters for printing many types of image files, HP-GL/2 files, PDF files, and text files. CUPS also supplies PostScript and image file Raster Image Processor ("RIP") filters that convert PostScript or image files into bitmaps that can be sent to a raster printer.

Backends

Backends perform the most important task of all - they send the filtered print data to the printer.

CUPS provides backends for printing over parallel, serial, and USB ports, and over the network via the IPP, JetDirect (AppSocket), and Line Printer Daemon ("LPD") protocols. Additional backends are available in network service packages such as the SMB backend included with the popular SAMBA software.

Backends are also used to determine the available devices. On startup each backend is asked for a list of devices it supports, and any information that is available. This allows the parallel backend to tell CUPS that an EPSON Stylus Color 600 printer is attached to parallel port 1, for example.

Printer Drivers

Printer drivers in CUPS consist of one of more filters specific to a printer. CUPS includes sample printer drivers for Hewlett-Packard LaserJet and DeskJet printers and EPSON 9-pin, 24-pin, Stylus Color, and Stylus Photo printers. While these drivers do not generate optimal output for the different printer models, they do provide basic printing and demonstrate how you can write your own printer drivers and incorporate them into CUPS.

Networking

Printers and classes on the local system are automatically shared with other systems on the network. This allows you to setup one system to print to a printer and use this system as a printer server or spool host for all of the others. Users may then select a local printer by name or a remote printer using "name@server".

CUPS also provides implicit classes, which are collections of printers and/or classes with the same name. This allows you to setup multiple servers pointing to the same physical network printer, for example, so that you aren't relying on a single system for printing. Because this also works with printer classes, you can setup multiple servers and printers and never worry about a single point of failure unless all of the printers and servers go down!

2 - The CUPS API

This chapter describes the CUPS Application Programmers Interface ("API").

The CUPS API Library

The CUPS library provides a whole collection of interfaces needed to support the internal needs of the CUPS software as well as the needs of applications, filters, printer drivers, and backends.

Unlike the rest of CUPS, the CUPS API library is provided under the GNU Library General Public License. This means that you can use the CUPS API library in both proprietary and open-source programs.

Programs that use the CUPS API library typically will include the <cups/cups.h> header file:

Use the -lcups compiler option when linking to the CUPS API library:

Additional options and libraries may be required depending on the operating system and the location of the CUPS API library.

Detecting the CUPS API Library in GNU Autoconf

GNU autoconf is a popular configuration tool used by many programs. Add the following lines to your configure.in file to check for the CUPS API library in your configuration script:

Printing Services

The CUPS API library provides some basic printing services for applications that need to print files.

Include Files

The include file used by all of these functions is <cups/cups.h>:

Printing a File

The CUPS API provides two functions for printing files. The first is cupsPrintFile which prints a single named file:

The name string is the name of the printer or class to print to. The filename string is the name of the file to print. The title string is the name of the print job, e.g. "Acme Word Document".

The return value is a unique ID number for the print job or 0 if there was an error.

Printing Multiple Files

The second printing function is cupsPrintFiles:

Instead of passing a filename string as with cupsPrintFile() you pass a file count (num_files) and filename pointer array (files) for each file that you want to print.

As with cupsPrintFile() the return value is a unique ID for the print job.

Cancelling Jobs

The cupsCancelJob() function cancels a queued print job:

The name string specifies the destination and is used to determine the server to send the request to. The jobid value is the integer returned from a previous cupsPrintFile() or cupsPrintFiles() call.

cupsCancelJob() returns 1 if the job was successfully cancelled and 0 if there was an error.

Getting the Available Printers and Classes

The cupsGetDests() function can be used to get a list of the available printers, classes, and instances that a user has defined:

Each destination is stored in a cups_dest_t structure which defines the printer or class name, the instance name (if any), if it is the default destination, and the default options the user has defined for the destination:

The destinations are sorted by name and instance for your convenience. Once you have the list of available destinations, you can lookup a specific destination using the cupsGetDest() function:

The name string is the printer or class name. You can pass a value of NULL to get the default destination.

The instance string is the user-defined instance name. Pass NULL to select the default instance, e.g. "name" instead of "name/instance".

Printing with Options

All of the previous printing examples have passed 0 and NULL for the last two arguments to the cupsPrintFile() and cupsPrintFiles() functions. These last two arguments are the number of options and a pointer to the option array:

The cups_option_t structure holds each option and its value. These are converted as needed and passed to the CUPS server when printing a file.

The simplest way of handling options is to use the num_options and options members of the cups_dest_t structure described earlier:

This effectively uses the options a user has previous selected without a lot of code.

Setting Printer Options

Options can also be set by your program using the cupsAddOption() function:

The name string is the name of the option, and the value string is the value for that option.

Each call to cupsAddOption() returns the new number of options. Since adding two options with the same name overwrites the first value with the second, do not assume that calling cupsAddOptions() 20 times will result in 20 options.

Call cupsFreeOptions once you are done using the options:

Getting Errors

If any of the CUPS API printing functions returns an error, the reason for that error can be found by calling cupsLastError() and ippErrorString(). cupsLastError() returns the last IPP error code that was encountered. ippErrorString() converts the error code to a localized message string suitable for presentation to the user:

Passwords and Authentication

CUPS supports authentication of any request, including submission of print jobs. The default mechanism for getting the username and password is to use the login user and a password from the console.

To support other types of applications, in particular Graphical User Interfaces ("GUIs"), the CUPS API provides functions to set the default username and to register a callback function that returns a password string.

The cupsSetPasswordCB() function is used to set a password callback in your program. Only one function can be used at any time.

The cupsSetUser() function sets the current username for authentication. This function can be called by your password callback function to change the current username as needed.

The following example shows a simple password callback that gets a username and password from the user:

Similarly, a GUI interface could display the prompt string in a window with input fields for the username and password. The username should probably default to the value of cupsUser() to make things easier on the user.

PPD Services

CUPS includes functions to access and manipulate PostScript Printer Description ("PPD") files that are used with the printer drivers in CUPS.

Each PPD file enumerates the available features provided by a printer, including conflict information for specific options (e.g. can't duplex output on envelopes.)

Include Files

Include the <cups/ppd.h> header file to use the PPD functions:

This header file is also included by the <cups/cups.h> header file.

Getting a PPD File for a Printer

The cupsGetPPD() function retrieves the PPD file for the named printer or class:

The name string is the name of the printer or class, including the remote server name as appropriate (e.g. "printer@server".)

The return value is a pointer to a filename in static storage; this value is overwritten with each call to cupsGetPPD(). If the printer or class does not exist, a NULL pointer will be returned.

Loading a PPD File

The ppdOpenFile() function "opens" a PPD file and loads it into memory:

The filename string is the name of the file to load, such as the value returned by the cupsGetPPD() function.

The return value is a pointer to a structure describing the contents of the PPD file or NULL if the PPD file could not be read.

Freeing PPD File Information

Once you are done using a PPD file, call the ppdClose() function to free all memory that has been used:

The PPD File Structure

Each PPD file contains a number of capability attributes, printer options, and conflict definitions. The page size options also include the physical margins for the printer and the minimum and maximum sizes for the printer. All of this information is stored in the ppd_file_t structure.

Capabilities

Each PPD file contains a number of informational attributes that describe the capabilities of the printer. These are provided in the ppd_file_t structure in the following members:

MemberTypeDescription
accurate_screensint1 = supports accurate screens
color_deviceint1 = color device
colorspaceppd_cs_t Default colorspace: PPD_CS_CMYK, PPD_CS_CMY, PPD_CS_GRAY, PPD_CS_RGB, PPD_CS_RGBK, PPD_CS_N
contone_onlyint1 = printer is continuous tone only
num_emulations
emulations
int
ppd_emul_t *
Emulations supported by the printer
flip_duplexint1 = need to flip odd pages when duplexing
num_fonts
fonts
int
char **
The fonts available on the printer.
jcl_begin
jcl_ps
jcl_end
char *Job Control Language commands for PostScript output
landscapeint Landscape orientation, -90 or 90 degrees
lang_encodingchar * The character used for the option strings
lang_versionchar * The language used for the options strings (English, French, etc.)
language_levelint PostScript language level, 1 to 3
manual_copiesint1 = Copies are done manually
model_numberint Driver-specific model number.
patcheschar *Patch commands to send to the printer
manufacturerchar * The Manufacturer attribute from the PPD file, if any
modelnamechar *The ModelName attribute from the PPD file
nicknamechar *The NickName attribute from the PPD file, if any
productchar *The Product attribute from the PPD file, if any
shortnicknamechar * The ShortNickName attribute from the PPD file, if any
throughputintNumber of pages per minute
ttrasterizerchar * The TruType font rasterizer (Type42)
variable_sizesint1 = supports variable sizes

Options and Groups

PPD files support multiple options, which are stored in ppd_option_t and ppd_choice_t structures by the PPD functions.

Each option in turn is associated with a group stored in the ppd_group_t structure. Groups can be specified in the PPD file; if an option is not associated with a group then it is put in a "General" or "Extra" group depending on the option.

Groups can also have sub-groups; CUPS currently limits the depth of sub-groups to 1 level to reduce programming complexity.

Conflicts

PPD files support specification of conflict conditions between different options. Conflicts are stored in ppd_conflict_t structures which specify the options that conflict with each other.

Page Sizes

PPD files specify all of the available pages sizes and the physical margins associated with them. These sizes are stored in ppd_size_t structures and are available in the num_sizes and sizes members of the ppd_file_t structure. You can lookup a particular page size with the ppdPageWidth(), ppdPageLength(), and ppdPageSize() functions:

The size string is the named page size option. The width and length are in points; there are 72 points per inch. The ppd_size_t structure contains the width, length, and margin information:

Custom Page Sizes

Besides the standard page sizes listed in a PPD file, some printers support variable or custom page sizes. If variables_sizes is non-zero, the custom_min, custom_max, and custom_margins members of the ppd_file_t structure define the limits of the variable sizes.

To get the resulting media size, use a page size string of Custom.widthxlength, where width and length are integer values in points:

Marking Options

Before marking any user-defined options, call the ppdMarkDefaults() function to mark the default options from the PPD file:

Then call the ppdMarkOption() function to mark individual options:

The name and value strings choose a particular option and choice, respectively. The return value is 0 if there are not conflicts created by the selection.

CUPS also provides a convenience function for marking all options in the cups_option_t structure:

The cupsMarkOptions() function also handles mapping the IPP job template attributes to PPD options. The return value is the number of conflicts present.

Checking for Conflicts

The ppdMarkOption() and cupsMarkOptions() functions return the number of conflicts with the currently marked options.

Call the ppdConflicts() function to get the number of conflicts after you have marked all of the options:

The return value is the number of conflicting options, or 0 if there are no conflicts.

3 - Writing Filters

This chapter describes how to write a file filter for CUPS.

Overview

File filters are programs that convert from one or more MIME types to another type. Filters use a common command-line and environment interface that allows them to be joined as needed to print files to any type of printer.

Security Considerations

Filters are normally run as a non-priviledged user, so the major security consideration is resource utilization - filters should not depend on unlimited amounts of memory and disk space.

Users and Groups

The default CUPS configuration runs filters as user "lp" and group "other".

Temporary Files

Temporary files should be created in the directory specified by the "TMPDIR" environment variable. The cupsTempFile() function can be used to safely choose temporary files in this directory.

Sending Messages to the User

The CUPS scheduler collects messages sent to the standard error file by the filter. These messages are relayed to the user based upon the scheduler LogLevel directive.

The type of message is determined by an initial prefix sent on each line:

If the line of text does not begin with any of the above prefixes, it is treated as a debug message. Text following the prefix is copied to the printer-state-message attribute for the printer, and also added to the error_log unless it is an informational or page accounting message.

Page Accounting

Page accounting messages are used to inform the server when one or more pages are printed. Each line has the form:

The page-number field is the current page number, starting at 1. The copy-count field specifies the number of copies of that page that was produced.

Page account messages are added to the page_log file and cause the job-sheets-completed attribute to be updated for the job.

Command-Line Arguments

Every filter accepts exactly 6 or 7 command-line arguments:

The filename argument is only provided to the first filter in the chain; all filters must be prepared to read the print file from the standard input if the filename argument is omitted.

Copy Generation

The copies argument specifies the number of copies to produce of the input file. In general, you should only generate copies if the filename argument is supplied. The only exception to this are filters that produce device-independent PostScript output (without any printer commands from the printer's PPD file), since the PostScript filter pstops is responsible for copy generation.

Environment Variables

Every filter receives a fixed set of environment variables that can be used by the filter:

Dissecting the HP-GL/2 Filter

The HP-GL/2 filter (hpgltops) provided with CUPS is a complex program that converts HP-GL/2 files into device-independent PostScript output. Since it produces device-independent PostScript output, it does not need to handle copy generation or writing printer options from the printer's PPD file.

Initializing the Filter

The first task of any filter is to ensure that the correct number of command-line arguments are present:

After this you open the print file or read from the standard input as needed:

Once the print file has been opened, options can be processed using the cupsParseOptions() and cupsGetOption() functions:

After the options have been processed, the filter writes PostScript code to the standard output based on the print file, closes the print file (as needed), and returns 0 to the scheduler.

PostScript Output

Filters that produce PostScript output must generate output conforming to the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, 3.0. In general this means the beginning of each file must begin with:

The left, bottom, right, and top values are integers in points from the lower-lefthand corner of the page.

Pages must be surrounded by:

And the end of each file must contain:

These comments allow the PostScript filter to correctly perform page accounting, copy generation, N-up printing, and so forth.

4 - Writing Printer Drivers

This chapter discusses how to write a printer driver, which is a special filter program that converts CUPS raster data into the appropriate commands and data required for a printer.

Overview

Raster printers utilitize PPD files that specify one or more device-specific filters that handle converting print files for the printer. The simplest raster printer drivers provide a single filter that converts CUPS raster data to the printer's native format.

CUPS Raster Data

CUPS raster data (application/vnd.cups-raster) consists of a stream of raster page descriptions produced by one of the RIP filters, such as pstoraster or imagetoraster.

Each page of data begins with a page dictionary structure called cups_raster_header_t. This structure contains the colorspace, bits per color, media size, media type, hardware resolution, and so forth.

After the page dictionary comes the page data which is a full-resolution, uncompressed bitmap representing the page in the printer's output colorspace.

Page Accounting

Printer drivers must handle all page accounting. This means they must send "PAGE:" messages to the standard error file for each page (and in many cases, copy) sent to the printer.

Color Management

Printer drivers can implement their color management via the cupsColorProfile attributes in the PPD file or internally in the driver from a device-independent colorspace. In general, color management performed by the RIP filters is more efficient than that performed inside printer drivers.

For example, the pstoraster filter often only has to perform a color conversion once each time the color is used for multiple output pixels, while the raster filter must convert every pixel on the page.

Device and Bitmap Variables

Besides the standard PostScript page device dictionary variables defined in the Adobe PostScript Level 3 reference manual, the CUPS filters support additional variables that are passed in the page device dictionary header for the page and in some cases control the type of raster data that is generated:

VariableTypeDescription
cupsWidthread-only integerWidth of bitmap in pixels
cupsHeightread-only integerHeight of bitmap in pixels
cupsMediaTyperead-write integerDevice-specific media type code
cupsBitsPerColorread-write integerNumber of bits per color; 1, 2, 4, and 8 are currently supported
cupsBitsPerPixelread-only integerNumber of bits per pixel; 1 to 32
cupsBytesPerLineread-only integerNumber of bytes per line of raster graphics
cupsColorOrderread-write enumThe order of color values in the bitmap:
  • CUPS_ORDER_CHUNKED - CMYK CMYK CMYK
  • CUPS_ORDER_BANDED - CCC MMM YYY KKK
  • CUPS_ORDER_PLANAR - CCC ... MMM ... YYY ... KKK ...
cupsColorSpaceread-write enumThe colorspace of the bitmap:
  • CUPS_CSPACE_W - White (luminance)
  • CUPS_CSPACE_RGB - Red, green, blue
  • CUPS_CSPACE_RGBA - Red, green, blue, alpha
  • CUPS_CSPACE_K - Black
  • CUPS_CSPACE_CMY - Cyan, magenta, yellow
  • CUPS_CSPACE_YMC - Yellow, magenta, cyan
  • CUPS_CSPACE_CMYK - Cyan, magenta, yellow, black
  • CUPS_CSPACE_YMCK - Yellow, magenta, cyan, black
  • CUPS_CSPACE_KCMY - Black, cyan, magenta, yellow
  • CUPS_CSPACE_KCMYcm - Black, cyan, magenta, yellow, light cyan, light magenta
  • CUPS_CSPACE_GMCK - Metallic yellow (gold), metallic magenta, metallic cyan, black
  • CUPS_CSPACE_GMCS - Metallic yellow (gold), metallic magenta, metallic cyan, metallic grey (silver)
  • CUPS_CSPACE_WHITE - White pigment (black as white pigment)
  • CUPS_CSPACE_GOLD - Gold foil (black as gold foil)
  • CUPS_CSPACE_SILVER - Silver foil (black as silver foil)
cupsCompressionread-write integer Device-specific compression type code
cupsRowCountread-write integerDevice-specific row count value
cupsRowFeedread-write integerDevice-specific row feed value
cupsRowStepread-write integerDevice-specific row step value

Bitmaps with a colorspace of CUPS_CSPACE_KCMYcm and more than 1 bit per color are transmitted to the raster driver in KCMY colorspace; the driver is responsible for producing the correct separation of normal and light cyan and magenta inks.

Dissecting the HP-PCL Driver

The HP-PCL driver provided with CUPS (rastertohp) converts bitmap data from the raster filters into HP-PCL commands for most PCL-compatible printers. The actual format of the raster data is controlled by the PPD file being used - deskjet.ppd or laserjet.ppd.

PPD Files

PPD files play an important part of all raster printer drivers. Options defined in the PPD file contain PostScript commands that control the raster data that is sent to the printer driver.

A typical CUPS printer driver will include ColorModel, InputSlot, PageSize, PageRegion, and Resolution options. Each option is shown using the standard PPD format:

The OpenUI keyword specifies the new option. The first name is the option with an asterisk (*) in front of it. The first name is usually followed by a slash (/) and a human-readable version of the option name.

Every option must have a default value, specified using the DefaultOption keyword.

Each option begins with the option name followed by the computer and human-readable values. The PostScript commands follow these inside double quotes. PostScript commands can be provided on a single line:

or broken down on separate lines using the End keyword to terminate them:

The choice of the two formats is usually esthetic. However, each line in a PPD file must not exceed 255 characters, so if your PostScript commands are long you may need to break them up on separate lines.

Reading Raster Data

As with any filter, your printer driver should handle raster data from a filename specified on the command-line or from the standard input. The cupsRasterOpen() function opens a raster stream for printing:

Once you have opened the raster stream you just need to read each page and print it:

After you have processed all pages, close the raster stream and return:

5 - Writing Backends

This chapter describes how to write a backend for CUPS. Backends communicate directly with printers and allow printer drivers and filters to send data using any type of connection transparently.

Overview

Backends are special filters that communicate with printers directly. They are treated slightly differently than filters, however, and have some unique requirements.

Security Considerations

Backends are run as the root user, so special care must be taken to avoid potential security violations. In particular, remember that a backend will be able to manipulate disk files, devices, and other resources that potentially could damage a system or printer.

Command-Line Arguments

Besides the standard filter arguments, backends are also run with no arguments to get a list of available devices. This discovery process is described later in this chapter.

Copy Generation

Like filters, backends should send multiple copies of the print file only if a filename is supplied on the command-line. Otherwise the backend should assume that the upstream filter has already added the necessary commands or data to produce the multiple copies.

Page Accounting

Backend filters generally do not do page accounting, however they should at a minimum produce a single page message for each copy that is produced when a filename is present on the command-line. This is because the user selected "raw" printing and no other accounting information is possible.

Exclusive Access

Backends that talk to local character or block devices should open the device file in exclusive mode (O_EXCL) to cooperate with other printers defined for the same device.

Retries

All backends must retry connections to the device. This includes backends that talk to local character or block devices, as the user may define more than one printer queue pointing at the same physical device.

To prevent excess CPU utilitization, the backend should go to sleep for an amount of time between retries; the CUPS-supplied backends retry once every 30 seconds.

Dissecting the Serial Port Backend

The serial port backend provides support for serial printers. Since it does everything a good backend needs to do, it provides an excellent example of what to do.

Supporting Device Discovery

As previously noted, backends are special filter programs that talk to printer devices. Another task a backend must perform is to list the available devices it supports. The backend lists the available devices when no additioanl arguments are supplied on the command-line (i.e. just the command name...)

The serial backend lists devices by looking at serial port files in the /dev directory, by consulting a hardware inventory (IRIX), and in some cases by trying to open the ports to see if they actually exist.

Once it finds a serial port it writes a single line for each port to the standard output file. Each line looks like this:

The first word "serial" is the device class; this identifies the class of device which can be used to categorize it in user interfaces. CUPS currently recognizes the following classes:

After the device class is the device URI, in this case "serial:/dev/ttyS0?baud=115200". This is the URI that should be used by the user to select this port. For serial ports, the "baud=115200" specifies the maximum baud rate supported by the port - the actual value will vary based on the speed the user selects for the printer.

The last two strings are the model and description for the port. The "Unknown" string means that the printer model is unknown - some devices are able to provide a make and model such as "HP DeskJet" that allows users and software to choose an appropriate printer driver more easily. Both the model and description must be enclosed inside double quotes.

Opening the Serial Port

As noted previously, all backends should open device files in exclusive mode, and retry as needed until the port is available. The serial port does this using a do-while loop:

If the port is busy or in use by another process, the backend will go to sleep for 30 seconds and try again. If another error is detected a message is sent to the user and the backend aborts the print job until the problem can be corrected.

Writing Data to the Port

Network and character devices pose an interesting problem when writing data to the port - they may not be able to write all of the bytes in your buffer before returning. To work around this problem you must loop until all bytes have been written:

The check for the ENOTTY error is needed on some platforms to clear an error from a previous ioctl() call.

Finishing Up

Once you have sent the print file, return 0 if the file printed successfully or 1 if it did not. This will allow the scheduler to stop the print job if there is a device error, preserving the print job for later printing once the problem has been corrected.

A - Software License Agreement

Common UNIX Printing System License Agreement

Copyright 1997-2004 by Easy Software Products
44141 AIRPORT VIEW DR STE 204
HOLLYWOOD, MARYLAND 20636-3142 USA

Voice: +1.301.373.9600
Email: cups-info@cups.org
WWW: http://www.cups.org

Introduction

The Common UNIX Printing SystemTM, ("CUPSTM"), is provided under the GNU General Public License ("GPL") and GNU Library General Public License ("LGPL"), Version 2, with exceptions for Apple operating systems and the OpenSSL toolkit. A copy of the exceptions and licenses follow this introduction.

The GNU LGPL applies to the CUPS API library, located in the "cups" subdirectory of the CUPS source distribution and in the "cups" include directory and library files in the binary distributions. The GNU GPL applies to the remainder of the CUPS distribution, including the "pdftops" filter which is based upon Xpdf and the CUPS imaging library.

For those not familiar with the GNU GPL, the license basically allows you to:

What this license does not allow you to do is make changes or add features to CUPS and then sell a binary distribution without source code. You must provide source for any new drivers, changes, or additions to the software, and all code must be provided under the GPL or LGPL as appropriate. The only exceptions to this are the portions of the CUPS software covered by the Apple operating system license exceptions outlined later in this license agreement.

The GNU LGPL relaxes the "link-to" restriction, allowing you to develop applications that use the CUPS API library under other licenses and/or conditions as appropriate for your application.

License Exceptions

In addition, as the copyright holder of CUPS, Easy Software Products grants the following special exceptions:

  1. Apple Operating System Development License Exception;
    1. Software that is developed by any person or entity for an Apple Operating System ("Apple OS-Developed Software"), including but not limited to Apple and third party printer drivers, filters, and backends for an Apple Operating System, that is linked to the CUPS imaging library or based on any sample filters or backends provided with CUPS shall not be considered to be a derivative work or collective work based on the CUPS program and is exempt from the mandatory source code release clauses of the GNU GPL. You may therefore distribute linked combinations of the CUPS imaging library with Apple OS-Developed Software without releasing the source code of the Apple OS-Developed Software. You may also use sample filters and backends provided with CUPS to develop Apple OS-Developed Software without releasing the source code of the Apple OS-Developed Software.
    2. An Apple Operating System means any operating system software developed and/or marketed by Apple Computer, Inc., including but not limited to all existing releases and versions of Apple's Darwin, Mac OS X, and Mac OS X Server products and all follow-on releases and future versions thereof.
    3. This exception is only available for Apple OS-Developed Software and does not apply to software that is distributed for use on other operating systems.
    4. All CUPS software that falls under this license exception have the following text at the top of each source file:
      This file is subject to the Apple OS-Developed Software exception.
  2. OpenSSL Toolkit License Exception;
    1. Easy Software Products explicitly allows the compilation and distribution of the CUPS software with the OpenSSL Toolkit.

No developer is required to provide these exceptions in a derived work.

Trademarks

Easy Software Products has trademarked the Common UNIX Printing System, CUPS, and CUPS logo. You may use these names and logos in any direct port or binary distribution of CUPS. Please contact Easy Software Products for written permission to use them in derivative products. Our intention is to protect the value of these trademarks and ensure that any derivative product meets the same high-quality standards as the original.

Binary Distribution Rights

Easy Software Products also sells rights to the CUPS source code under a binary distribution license for vendors that are unable to release source code for their drivers, additions, and modifications to CUPS under the GNU GPL and LGPL. For information please contact us at the address shown above.

The Common UNIX Printing System provides a "pdftops" filter that is based on the Xpdf software. For binary distribution licensing of this software, please contact:

Derek B. Noonburg
Email: derekn@foolabs.com
WWW: http://www.foolabs.com/xpdf/

Support

Easy Software Products sells software support for CUPS as well as a commercial printing product based on CUPS called ESP Print Pro. You can find out more at our web site:

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Version 2, June 1991

Copyright 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim
copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble

The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.

Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations.

Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

  1. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".

    Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

  2. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.

    You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

  3. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
    1. You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
    2. You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.
    3. if the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)

    These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

    Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.

    In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.

  4. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
    1. Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
    2. Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
    3. Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)

    The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.

    If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

  5. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
  6. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.
  7. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.
  8. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.

    If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.

    It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.

    This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

  9. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
  10. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

    Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

  11. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

NO WARRANTY

  1. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
  2. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Version 2, June 1991

Copyright (C) 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

[This is the first released version of the library GPL.  It is
 numbered 2 because it goes with version 2 of the ordinary GPL.]

Preamble

The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.

This license, the Library General Public License, applies to some specially designated Free Software Foundation software, and to any other libraries whose authors decide to use it. You can use it for your libraries, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the library, or if you modify it.

For example, if you distribute copies of the library, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that we gave you. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. If you link a program with the library, you must provide complete object files to the recipients so that they can relink them with the library, after making changes to the library and recompiling it. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

Our method of protecting your rights has two steps: (1) copyright the library, and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the library.

Also, for each distributor's protection, we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free library. If the library is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original version, so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations.

Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger that companies distributing free software will individually obtain patent licenses, thus in effect transforming the program into proprietary software. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

Most GNU software, including some libraries, is covered by the ordinary GNU General Public License, which was designed for utility programs. This license, the GNU Library General Public License, applies to certain designated libraries. This license is quite different from the ordinary one; be sure to read it in full, and don't assume that anything in it is the same as in the ordinary license.

The reason we have a separate public license for some libraries is that they blur the distinction we usually make between modifying or adding to a program and simply using it. Linking a program with a library, without changing the library, is in some sense simply using the library, and is analogous to running a utility program or application program. However, in a textual and legal sense, the linked executable is a combined work, a derivative of the original library, and the ordinary General Public License treats it as such.

Because of this blurred distinction, using the ordinary General Public License for libraries did not effectively promote software sharing, because most developers did not use the libraries. We concluded that weaker conditions might promote sharing better.

However, unrestricted linking of non-free programs would deprive the users of those programs of all benefit from the free status of the libraries themselves. This Library General Public License is intended to permit developers of non-free programs to use free libraries, while preserving your freedom as a user of such programs to change the free libraries that are incorporated in them. (We have not seen how to achieve this as regards changes in header files, but we have achieved it as regards changes in the actual functions of the Library.) The hope is that this will lead to faster development of free libraries.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. Pay close attention to the difference between a "work based on the library" and a "work that uses the library". The former contains code derived from the library, while the latter only works together with the library.

Note that it is possible for a library to be covered by the ordinary General Public License rather than by this special one.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

0. This License Agreement applies to any software library which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder or other authorized party saying it may be distributed under the terms of this Library General Public License (also called "this License"). Each licensee is addressed as "you".

A "library" means a collection of software functions and/or data prepared so as to be conveniently linked with application programs (which use some of those functions and data) to form executables.

The "Library", below, refers to any such software library or work which has been distributed under these terms. A "work based on the Library" means either the Library or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Library or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated straightforwardly into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".)

"Source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For a library, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the library.

Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running a program using the Library is not restricted, and output from such a program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Library (independent of the use of the Library in a tool for writing it). Whether that is true depends on what the Library does and what the program that uses the Library does.

1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Library's complete source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and distribute a copy of this License along with the Library.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Library or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Library, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

  1. The modified work must itself be a software library.

  2. You must cause the files modified to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

  3. You must cause the whole of the work to be licensed at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.

  4. If a facility in the modified Library refers to a function or a table of data to be supplied by an application program that uses the facility, other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked, then you must make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the event an application does not supply such function or table, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful.

    (For example, a function in a library to compute square roots has a purpose that is entirely well-defined independent of the application. Therefore, Subsection 2d requires that any application-supplied function or table used by this function must be optional: if the application does not supply it, the square root function must still compute square roots.)

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Library, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Library, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Library.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Library with the Library (or with a work based on the Library) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.

3. You may opt to apply the terms of the ordinary GNU General Public License instead of this License to a given copy of the Library. To do this, you must alter all the notices that refer to this License, so that they refer to the ordinary GNU General Public License, version 2, instead of to this License. (If a newer version than version 2 of the ordinary GNU General Public License has appeared, then you can specify that version instead if you wish.) Do not make any other change in these notices.

Once this change is made in a given copy, it is irreversible for that copy, so the ordinary GNU General Public License applies to all subsequent copies and derivative works made from that copy.

This option is useful when you wish to copy part of the code of the Library into a program that is not a library.

4. You may copy and distribute the Library (or a portion or derivative of it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.

If distribution of object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place satisfies the requirement to distribute the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

5. A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the Library, but is designed to work with the Library by being compiled or linked with it, is called a "work that uses the Library". Such a work, in isolation, is not a derivative work of the Library, and therefore falls outside the scope of this License.

However, linking a "work that uses the Library" with the Library creates an executable that is a derivative of the Library (because it contains portions of the Library), rather than a "work that uses the library". The executable is therefore covered by this License. Section 6 states terms for distribution of such executables.

When a "work that uses the Library" uses material from a header file that is part of the Library, the object code for the work may be a derivative work of the Library even though the source code is not. Whether this is true is especially significant if the work can be linked without the Library, or if the work is itself a library. The threshold for this to be true is not precisely defined by law.

If such an object file uses only numerical parameters, data structure layouts and accessors, and small macros and small inline functions (ten lines or less in length), then the use of the object file is unrestricted, regardless of whether it is legally a derivative work. (Executables containing this object code plus portions of the Library will still fall under Section 6.)

Otherwise, if the work is a derivative of the Library, you may distribute the object code for the work under the terms of Section 6. Any executables containing that work also fall under Section 6, whether or not they are linked directly with the Library itself.

6. As an exception to the Sections above, you may also compile or link a "work that uses the Library" with the Library to produce a work containing portions of the Library, and distribute that work under terms of your choice, provided that the terms permit modification of the work for the customer's own use and reverse engineering for debugging such modifications.

You must give prominent notice with each copy of the work that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License. You must supply a copy of this License. If the work during execution displays copyright notices, you must include the copyright notice for the Library among them, as well as a reference directing the user to the copy of this License. Also, you must do one of these things:

  1. Accompany the work with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code for the Library including whatever changes were used in the work (which must be distributed under Sections 1 and 2 above); and, if the work is an executable linked with the Library, with the complete machine-readable "work that uses the Library", as object code and/or source code, so that the user can modify the Library and then relink to produce a modified executable containing the modified Library. (It is understood that the user who changes the contents of definitions files in the Library will not necessarily be able to recompile the application to use the modified definitions.)

  2. Accompany the work with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give the same user the materials specified in Subsection 6a, above, for a charge no more than the cost of performing this distribution.

  3. If distribution of the work is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, offer equivalent access to copy the above specified materials from the same place.

  4. Verify that the user has already received a copy of these materials or that you have already sent this user a copy.

For an executable, the required form of the "work that uses the Library" must include any data and utility programs needed for reproducing the executable from it. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.

It may happen that this requirement contradicts the license restrictions of other proprietary libraries that do not normally accompany the operating system. Such a contradiction means you cannot use both them and the Library together in an executable that you distribute.

7. You may place library facilities that are a work based on the Library side-by-side in a single library together with other library facilities not covered by this License, and distribute such a combined library, provided that the separate distribution of the work based on the Library and of the other library facilities is otherwise permitted, and provided that you do these two things:

  1. Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based on the Library, uncombined with any other library facilities. This must be distributed under the terms of the Sections above.

  2. Give prominent notice with the combined library of the fact that part of it is a work based on the Library, and explaining where to find the accompanying uncombined form of the same work.

8. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or distribute the Library except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or distribute the Library is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

9. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Library or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Library (or any work based on the Library), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Library or works based on it.

10. Each time you redistribute the Library (or any work based on the Library), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute, link with or modify the Library subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.

11. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Library at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Library by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Library.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply, and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

12. If the distribution and/or use of the Library is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Library under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.

13. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the Library General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Library specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library does not specify a license version number, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

14. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Library into other free programs whose distribution conditions are incompatible with these, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

NO WARRANTY

15. BECAUSE THE LIBRARY IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE LIBRARY, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE LIBRARY "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE LIBRARY IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE LIBRARY PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

16. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE LIBRARY AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE LIBRARY (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE LIBRARY TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

B - Constants

This appendix lists all of the constants that are defined by the CUPS API.

CUPS Constants

Version Number

The CUPS_VERSION constant is a floating-point number representing the API version number. The current version number is 1.0100 which represents CUPS version 1.1.0.

Printer Capabilities

The CUPS_PRINTER constants represent capability bits for printers and classes:

Encodings

CUPS defines the following character set encoding constants:

HTTP Constants

Limits

The following constants define the limits for strings:

Status Codes

The following status codes can be returned by httpUpdate() :

Fields

The following fields are indices for each of the standard HTTP fields in HTTP 1/1:

IPP Constants

Limits

The following constants define array limits for IPP data:

Tags

Resolution Units

The IPP_RES_PER_INCH and IPP_RES_PER_CM constants specify dots per inch and dots per centimeter, respectively.

Finishings

The finishing values specify special finishing operations to be performed on the job.

Orientations

The orientation values specify the orientation of the job.

Qualities

The quality values specify the desired quality of the print.

Job States

The job state values are used to represent the current job state.

Printer States

The printer state values are used to represent the current printer state.

Operations

The operation values represent the available IPP operations.

Status Codes

Status codes are returned by all IPP requests.

PPD Constants

PPD Format Version

The PPD_VERSION constant defines a floating point number representing the newest format version that is supported by CUPS, currently 4.3.

PPD User-Interface Types

Each printer option has a type associated with it:

PPD Sections

Some options must be output before others, or in different sections of the output document. The ppd_section_t enumeration defines which section the option must be output in:

PPD Colorspaces

Each printer has a default colorspace:

Raster Constants

Raster Sync Words

The CUPS_RASTER_SYNC and CUPS_RASTER_REVSYNC constants define the standard sync words at the beginning of each CUPS raster file.

Raster Stream Modes

The CUPS_RASTER_READ and CUPS_RASTER_WRITE constants are used with the cupsRasterOpen() function to specify a stream for reading or writing.

Raster Boolean Constants

The CUPS_FALSE and CUPS_TRUE constants represent boolean values in the page header.

Raster Jog Values

The cups_jog_t enumeration defines constants for the Jog page device dictionary variable:

Raster Orientation Values

The cups_orient_t enumeration defines constants for the Orientation page device dictionary variable:

Raster CutMedia Values

The cups_cut_t enumeration defines constants for the CutMedia page device dictionary variable:

Raster AdvanceMedia Values

The cups_advance_t enumeration defines constants for the AdvanceMedia page device dictionary variable:

Raster LeadingEdge Values

The cups_edge_t enumeration defines constants for the LeadingEdge page device dictionary variable:

Raster Color Order Values

The cups_order_t enumeration defines the possible color value orderings:

Raster Colorspace Values

The cups_cspace_t enumeration defines the possible colorspaces:

C - Structures

This appendix describes all of the structures that are defined by the CUPS API.

CUPS Structures

CUPS Destinations

The CUPS destination structure (cups_dest_t) contains information on a specific destination or instance:

MemberTypeDescription
namechar *The name of the printer or class.
instancechar *The instance of the printer or class; NULL for the primary instance.
is_defaultint1 if the destination is set as the default, 0 otherwise.
num_optionsintThe number of options associated with this destination.
optionscups_option_t * The options associated with this destination.

CUPS Jobs

The CUPS job structure (cups_job_t) contains information on a specific job:

MemberTypeDescription
idintThe job ID for this job.
destchar *The destination for this job (printer or class name).
titlechar *The job-name for this job (title).
userchar *The job-originating-user-name for this job (username).
formatchar *The document-format for this job (MIME type string).
stateipp_jstateThe current state of the job.
sizeintThe size of this job in kilobytes.
priorityintThe priority of this job from 1 to 100 (50 is normal).
completed_timetime_tThe time the job was completed, or 0 if not yet completed.
creation_timetime_tThe time the job was queued.
processing_timetime_tThe time the job started printing.

CUPS Messages

The CUPS messages structure (cups_lang_t) contains the character set, locale name, and messages array:

MemberTypeDescription
nextcups_lang_t *Pointer to the next messages structure in memory.
usedintThe number of active users of this messages structure.
encodingcups_encoding_tThe character encoding of the message strings.
languagechar [16]The language/locale name.
messageschar *[]The array of message strings.

CUPS Options

The CUPS option structure (cups_option_t) contains the option name and string value:

MemberTypeDescription
namechar *The name of the option.
valuechar *The string value of the option.

Networking Structures

HTTP State

The HTTP state structure (http_t) contains the current state of a HTTP request or response:

MemberTypeDescription
fdintThe socket for the HTTP connection.
blockingint1 if the HTTP functions should block, 0 if not.
errorintThe last OS error that occurred on the socket.
activitytime_tThe last time the HTTP connection was used.
statehttp_state_tThe current HTTP request/response state.
statusintThe last HTTP status seen.
versionhttp_version_tThe HTTP protocol version in use.
keep_alivehttp_keep_alive_tWhether or not to use Keep-Alive
hostaddrstruct sockaddr_inThe IPv4 address of the HTTP server.
hostnamechar []The hostname of the HTTP server.
fieldschar [][]The string values of all HTTP request/response fields.
datachar *Current byte in data buffer.
data_encodinghttp_encoding_tThe transfer encoding for the request/response.
data_remainingintThe number of bytes remaining in the current request, response, or chunk.
usedintThe number of bytes that are used in the buffer.
bufferchar []The read/write buffer.
auth_typeintThe type of authentication in use.
md5_statemd5_state_tThe current MD5 digest state.
noncechar []The nonce value for Digest authentication.
nonce_countintThe nonce count value.
tlsvoid *A pointer to private encryption data.
encryptionhttp_encryption_tThe current encryption mode.

IPP State

The IPP state structure (ipp_t) contains the current state of a IPP request or response:

MemberTypeDescription

IPP Attribute

TODO

PPD Structures

PPD File

TODO

PPD Choice

TODO

Raster Structures

Raster Stream

TODO

Raster Page Header

The raster page header (cups_raster_header_t) consists of the PostScript page device dictionary for the page:

MemberTypeDescription
MediaClasschar[64]The media class name
MediaColorchar[64]The media color name
MediaTypechar[64]The media type name
OutputTypechar[64]The output type name
AdvanceDistanceunsignedThe distance to advance the media in points
AdvanceMediacups_adv_tWhen to advance the media
Collatecups_bool_tWhether or not to produce collated copies
CutMediacups_cut_tWhen to cut the media
Duplexcups_bool_tWhether or not to print on both sides of the paper
HWResolutionunsigned[2]The resolution of the page image in pixels per inch; the HWResolution[0] represents the horizontal resolution and HWResolution[1] represents the vertical resolution
ImagingBoundingBoxunsigned[4]The bounding box for the page in points; the elements represent the left, bottom, right, and top coordinates of the imaged area (if 0 then the whole page is imaged)
InsertSheetcups_bool_tWhether or not to insert a sheet before this page
Jogcups_jog_tWhen to jog copies of the page
LeadingEdgecups_edge_tThe leading edge of the page
Marginsunsigned[2]The lower-lefthand margin of the page in points
ManualFeedcups_bool_tWhether or not to manually feed the page
MediaPositionunsignedThe input slot number to use
MediaWeightunsignedThe weight of the output media in grams/m2
MirrorPrintcups_bool_tWhether or not to mirror the print
NegativePrintcups_bool_tWhether or not to invert the print
NumCopiesunsignedThe number of copies to produce
Orientationcups_orient_tThe orientation of the page image
OutputFaceUpcups_bool_tWhether or not to output the page face up
PageSizeunsigned[2]The width and height of the page in points
Separationscups_bool_tWhether or not to output separations
TraySwitchcups_bool_tWhether or not to automatically switch trays for the requested media size/type
Tumblecups_bool_tWhether or not to rotate the back side of the page
cupsWidthunsignedThe width of the page image in pixels
cupsHeightunsignedThe height of the page image in pixels
cupsMediaTypeunsignedThe device-specific media type code
cupsBitsPerColorunsignedThe number of bits per color
cupsBitsPerPixelunsignedThe number of bits per pixel
cupsBytesPerLineunsignedThe number of bytes per line of image data
cupsColorOrdercups_order_tThe order of color values
cupsColorSpacecups_cspace_tThe type of color values
cupsCompressionunsignedThe device-specific compression code
cupsRowCountunsignedThe device-specific row count
cupsRowFeedunsignedThe device-specific row feed
cupsRowStepunsignedThe device-specific row step

D - Functions

This appendix provides a reference for all of the CUPS API functions.

cupsAddDest()

Usage

int
cupsAddDest(const char  *name,
            const char  *instance,
            int         num_dests,
	    cups_dest_t **dests);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
nameThe name of the destination.
instanceThe instance of the destination, or NULL for the primary instance.
num_destsThe number of destinations in the array.
destA pointer to the destination array pointer.

Returns

The new number of destinations in the array.

Description

cupsAddDest() adds the named destination to the destination array if it does not already exist.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int         num_dests;
cups_dest_t *dests;


num_dests = cupsAddDests("foo", "bar", num_dests, &dests);

See Also

cupsFreeDests(), cupsGetDest(), cupsGetDests()

cupsAddOption()

Usage

int
cupsAddOption(const char    *name,
              const char    *value,
              int           num_options,
	      cups_option_t **options);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
nameThe name of the option.
valueThe value of the option.
num_optionsNumber of options currently in the array.
optionsPointer to the options array.

Returns

The new number of options.

Description

cupsAddOption() adds an option to the specified array.

Example

#include <cups.h>

...

/* Declare the options array */
int           num_options;
cups_option_t *options;

/* Initialize the options array */
num_options = 0;
options     = (cups_option_t *)0;

/* Add options using cupsAddOption() */
num_options = cupsAddOption("media", "letter", num_options, &options);
num_options = cupsAddOption("resolution", "300dpi", num_options, &options);

See Also

cupsEncodeOptions(), cupsFreeOptions(), cupsGetOption(), cupsParseOptions()

cupsCancelJob()

Usage

int
cupsCancelJob(const char *dest,
              int        job);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
destPrinter or class name
jobJob ID

Returns

1 on success, 0 on failure. On failure the error can be found by calling cupsLastError().

Description

cupsCancelJob() cancels the specifies job.

Example

#include <cups.h>

cupsCancelJob("LaserJet", 1);

See Also

cupsLastError(), cupsPrintFile(), cupsPrintFiles()

cupsDoAuthentication()

Usage

int
cupsDoAuthentication(http_t     *http,
                     const char *method,
                     const char *resource);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpHTTP connection to server.
methodHTTP method name ("GET", "POST", "PUT", etc.)
resourceHTTP resource name.

Returns

0 if the authentication string was successfully generated, -1 otherwise.

Description

cupsDoAuthentication() generates an authentication string for the given method and request. It supports Basic, Digest, and CUPS local certificate authentication methods and uses the current user and password callback to collect authentication information as needed.

Applications using this function should set the HTTP_FIELD_AUTHORIZATION field to the authstring value in the http_t structure prior to issuing a new request.

Example

#include <cups.h>

http_t        *http;
char          resource[HTTP_MAX_URI];
http_status_t status;

...

do
{
  httpClearFields(http);
  httpSetField(http, HTTP_FIELD_AUTHORIZATION, http->authstring);

  if (httpGet(http, resource))
  {
    if (httpReconnect(http))
    {
      status = HTTP_ERROR;
      break;
    }

    continue;
  }

  while ((status = httpUpdate(http)) == HTTP_CONTINUE);

  if (status == HTTP_UNAUTHORIZED)
  {
    httpFlush(http);

    if (cupsDoAuthentication(http, "GET", resource))
      break;

    httpReconnect(http);
    continue;
  }
}
while (status == HTTP_UNAUTHORIZED);

See Also

cupsDoAuthentication() , cupsGetPassword(), cupsSetPasswordCB(), cupsSetUser(), cupsUser()

cupsDoFileRequest()

Usage

ipp_t *
cupsDoFileRequest(http_t     *http,
                  ipp_t      *request,
                  const char *resource,
		  const char *filename);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpHTTP connection to server.
requestIPP request data.
resourceHTTP resource name for POST.
filenameFile to send with POST request (NULL pointer if none.)

Returns

IPP response data or NULL if the request fails. On failure the error can be found by calling cupsLastError().

Description

cupsDoFileRequest() does a HTTP POST request and provides the IPP request and optionally the contents of a file to the IPP server. It also handles resubmitting the request and performing password authentication as needed.

Example

#include <cups.h>

http_t      *http;
cups_lang_t *language;
ipp_t       *request;
ipp_t       *response;

...

/* Get the default language */
language = cupsLangDefault();

/* Create a new IPP request */
request  = ippNew();

request->request.op.operation_id = IPP_PRINT_FILE;
request->request.op.request_id   = 1;

/* Add required attributes */
ippAddString(request, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, IPP_TAG_CHARSET,
             "attributes-charset", NULL, cupsLangEncoding(language));

ippAddString(request, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, IPP_TAG_LANGUAGE,
             "attributes-natural-language", NULL,
             language != NULL ? language->language : "C");

ippAddString(request, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, IPP_TAG_URI, "printer-uri",
             NULL, "ipp://hostname/resource");

ippAddString(request, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, IPP_TAG_NAME, "requesting-user-name",
             NULL, cupsUser());

/* Do the request... */
response = cupsDoFileRequest(http, request, "/resource", "filename.txt");

See Also

cupsLangDefault(), cupsLangEncoding(), cupsUser(), httpConnect() , ippAddString(), ippNew()

cupsDoRequest()

Usage

ipp_t *
cupsDoRequest(http_t *http,
              ipp_t *request,
              const char *resource);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpHTTP connection to server.
requestIPP request data.
resourceHTTP resource name for POST.

Returns

IPP response data or NULL if the request fails. On failure the error can be found by calling cupsLastError().

Description

cupsDoRequest() does a HTTP POST request and provides the IPP request to the IPP server. It also handles resubmitting the request and performing password authentication as needed.

Example

#include <cups.h>

http_t      *http;
cups_lang_t *language;
ipp_t       *request;
ipp_t       *response;

...

/* Get the default language */
language = cupsLangDefault();

/* Create a new IPP request */
request  = ippNew();

request->request.op.operation_id = IPP_GET_PRINTER_ATTRIBUTES;
request->request.op.request_id   = 1;

/* Add required attributes */
ippAddString(request, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, IPP_TAG_CHARSET,
             "attributes-charset", NULL, cupsLangEncoding(language));

ippAddString(request, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, IPP_TAG_LANGUAGE,
             "attributes-natural-language", NULL,
             language != NULL ? language->language : "C");

ippAddString(request, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, IPP_TAG_URI, "printer-uri",
             NULL, "ipp://hostname/resource");

/* Do the request... */
response = cupsDoRequest(http, request, "/resource");

See Also

cupsLangDefault(), cupsLangEncoding(), cupsUser(), httpConnect() , ippAddString(), ippNew()

cupsEncodeOptions()

Usage

void
cupsEncodeOptions(ipp_t         *ipp,
                  int           num_options,
		  cups_option_t *options);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request.
num_optionsThe number of options.
optionsThe options.

Description

cupsEncodeOptions() encodes all of the options in the specified array as IPP attributes and adds them to the IPP request.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

ipp_t         *ipp;
int           num_options;
cups_option_t *options;


cupsEncodeOptions(ipp, num_options, options);

See Also

cupsAddOption(), cupsParseOptions(), ippNew()

cupsEncryption()

Usage

http_encryption_t
cupsEncryption(void);

Returns

The current encryption setting.

Description

cupsEncryption() returns the current encryption setting for IPP requests such as printing.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

http_t *http;

printf("The current encryption setting is %d.\n", cupsEncryption());

http = httpConnectEncrypt(cupsServer(), ippPort(), cupsEncryption());

See Also

cupsServer(), httpConnectEncrypt(), ippPort()

cupsFreeDests()

Usage

void
cupsFreeDests(int         num_dests,
              cups_dest_t *dests);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
num_destsThe number of destinations in the array.
destsThe destination array.

Description

cupsFreeDests() frees a destination array that was created using cupsGetDests().

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int         num_dests;
cups_dest_t *dests;
cups_dest_t *dest;

num_dests = cupsGetDests(&dests);
dest      = cupsGetDest(NULL, NULL, num_dests, dests);

if (dest)
  printf("The default destination is %s\n", dest->name);
else
  puts("No default destination.");

cupsFreeDests(num_dests, dests);

See Also

cupsGetDest(), cupsGetDests()

cupsFreeJobs()

Usage

void
cupsFreeJobs(int        num_jobs,
             cups_job_t *jobs);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
num_jobsThe number of jobs.
jobsThe job array.

Description

cupsFreeJobs() frees an array of print jobs created by the cupsGetJobs() function.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int        i;
int        num_jobs;
cups_job_t *jobs;


num_jobs = cupsGetJobs(&jobs, NULL, 0, 0);

printf("%d active job(s):\n", num_jobs);
for (i = 0; i < num_jobs; i ++)
  printf("%-16.16s %-6d %-12.12s %s (%s)\n", jobs[i].dest, jobs[i].id,
         jobs[i].user, jobs[i].title,
	 jobs[i].state != IPP_JOB_PENDING ? "printing" : "pending");

cupsFreeJobs(num_jobs, jobs);

See Also

cupsGetJobs(), cupsGetDests()

cupsFreeOptions()

Usage

void
cupsFreeOptions(int           num_options,
                cups_option_t *options);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
num_optionsNumber of options in array.
optionsPointer to options array.

Description

cupsFreeOptions() frees all memory associated with the option array specified.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int           num_options;
cups_option_t *options;

...

cupsFreeOptions(num_options, options);

See Also

cupsAddOption(), cupsEncodeOptions(), cupsGetOption(), cupsMarkOptions(), cupsParseOptions()

cupsGetClasses()

Usage

int
cupsGetClasses(char ***classes);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
classesPointer to character pointer array.

Returns

The number of printer classes available.

Description

cupsGetClasses() gets a list of the available printer classes. The returned array should be freed using the free() when it is no longer needed.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int  i;
int  num_classes;
char **classes;

...

num_classes = cupsGetClasses(&classes);

...

if (num_classes > 0)
{
  for (i = 0; i < num_classes; i ++)
    free(classes[i]);

  free(classes);
}

See Also

cupsGetDefault(), cupsGetPrinters()

cupsGetDefault()

Usage

const char *
cupsGetDefault(void);

Returns

A pointer to the default destination.

Description

cupsGetDefault() gets the default destination printer or class. The default destination is stored in a static string and will be overwritten (usually with the same value) after each call.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

printf("The default destination is %s\n", cupsGetDefault());

See Also

cupsGetClasses(), cupsGetPrinters()

cupsGetDest()

Usage

cups_dest_t *
cupsGetDest(const char  *name,
            const char  *instance,
            int         num_dests,
            cups_dest_t *dests);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
nameThe name of the destination, or NULL for the default destination.
instanceThe instance of the destination, or NULL for the primary instance.
num_destsThe number of destinations.
destsThe destination array.

Returns

A pointer to the specified destination, or NULL if none exists.

Description

cupsGetDest() finds the specified destination in the array of destinations created by the cupsGetDests() function.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int         num_dests;
cups_dest_t *dests;
cups_dest_t *dest;

num_dests = cupsGetDests(&dests);
dest      = cupsGetDest(NULL, NULL, num_dests, dests);

if (dest)
  printf("The default destination is %s\n", dest->name);
else
  puts("No default destination.");

cupsFreeDests(num_dests, dests);

See Also

cupsGetDests(), cupsGetJobs()

cupsGetDests()

Usage

int
cupsGetDests(cups_dest_t **dests);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
destsA pointer to a destination array pointer.

Returns

The number of available destinations.

Description

cupsGetDests() creates an array of available destinations that the user can print to. The array should be freed using the cupsFreeDests() function.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int         num_dests;
cups_dest_t *dests;
cups_dest_t *dest;

num_dests = cupsGetDests(&dests);
dest      = cupsGetDest(NULL, NULL, num_dests, dests);

if (dest)
  printf("The default destination is %s\n", dest->name);
else
  puts("No default destination.");

cupsFreeDests(num_dests, dests);

See Also

cupsFreeDests(), cupsGetDest(), cupsGetJobs()

cupsGetFd()

Usage

http_status_t
cupsGetFd(http_t     *http,
          const char *resource,
	  int        fd);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection to the server.
resourceThe resource name on the server.
fdThe file descriptor to write to.

Returns

The HTTP status code associated with the request.

Description

cupsGetFd() gets a file from the given HTTP server and writes it to the specified file descriptor, performing any authentication or encryption as required.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

http_t        *http;
int           fd;
char          filename[1024];
http_status_t status;
...

http   = httpConnectEncrypt(cupsServer(), ippPort(), cupsEncryption());
fd     = cupsTempFd(filename, sizeof(filename));
status = cupsGetFd(http, "/admin/cupsd.conf", fd);

...

close(fd);
unlink(filename);

httpClose(http);

See Also

cupsGetFile(), cupsPutFd(), cupsPutFile()

cupsGetFile()

Usage

http_status_t
cupsGetFile(http_t     *http,
            const char *resource,
	    const char *filename);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection to the server.
resourceThe resource name on the server.
filenameThe filename to write to.

Returns

The HTTP status code associated with the request.

Description

cupsGetFile() gets a file from the given HTTP server and writes it to the specified filename, performing any authentication or encryption as required.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

http_t        *http;
char          filename[1024];
http_status_t status;
...

http = httpConnectEncrypt(cupsServer(), ippPort(), cupsEncryption());

cupsTempFile(filename, sizeof(filename));

status = cupsGetFile(http, "/admin/cupsd.conf", filename);

...

unlink(filename);

httpClose(http);

See Also

cupsGetFd(), cupsPutFd(), cupsPutFile()

cupsGetJobs()

Usage

int
cupsGetJobs(cups_job_t **jobs,
            const char *dest,
            int        myjobs,
            int        completed);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
jobsA pointer to the job array pointer.
destThe destination name, or NULL if jobs for all destinations are requested.
myjobs1 if only those jobs submitted by the current cupsUser() should be returned, 0 for jobs submitted by all users.
completed1 if only completed jobs should be returned, 0 if only pending/processing jobs should be returned.

Returns

The number of jobs.

Description

cupsGetJobs() creates an array of print jobs based on the arguments supplied in the function call. The returned array should be freed using the cupsFreeJobs() function.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int        i;
int        num_jobs;
cups_job_t *jobs;


num_jobs = cupsGetJobs(&jobs, NULL, 0, 0);

printf("%d active job(s):\n", num_jobs);
for (i = 0; i < num_jobs; i ++)
  printf("%-16.16s %-6d %-12.12s %s (%s)\n", jobs[i].dest, jobs[i].id,
         jobs[i].user, jobs[i].title,
	 jobs[i].state != IPP_JOB_PENDING ? "printing" : "pending");

cupsFreeJobs(num_jobs, jobs);

See Also

cupsFreeJobs(), cupsGetDests()

cupsGetOption()

Usage

const char *
cupsGetOption(const char    *name,
              int           num_options,
              cups_option_t *options);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
nameThe name of the option.
num_optionsThe number of options in the array.
optionsThe options array.

Returns

A pointer to the option values or NULL if the option is not defined.

Description

cupsGetOption() returns the first occurrence of the named option. If the option is not included in the options array then a NULL pointer is returned.

#include <cups/cups.h>

int           num_options;
cups_option_t *options;
const char    *media;

...

media = cupsGetOption("media", num_options, options);

See Also

cupsAddOption(), cupsEncodeOptions(), cupsFreeOptions(), cupsMarkOptions(), cupsParseOptions()

cupsGetPassword()

Usage

const char *
cupsGetPassword(const char *prompt);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
promptThe prompt to display to the user.

Returns

A pointer to the password that was entered or NULL if no password was entered.

Description

cupsGetPassword() displays the prompt string and asks the user for a password. The password text is not echoed to the user.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

char *password;

...

password = cupsGetPassword("Please enter a password:");

See Also

cupsDoAuthentication() , cupsServer(), cupsSetPasswordCB(), cupsSetServer(), cupsSetUser() , cupsUser()

cupsGetPPD()

Usage

const char *
cupsGetPPD(const char *printer);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
printerThe name of the printer.

Returns

The name of a temporary file containing the PPD file or NULL if the printer cannot be located or does not have a PPD file.

Description

cupsGetPPD() gets a copy of the PPD file for the named printer. The printer name can be of the form "printer" or "printer@hostname".

You should remove (unlink) the PPD file after you are done using it. The filename is stored in a static buffer and will be overwritten with each call to cupsGetPPD().

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

char *ppd;

...

ppd = cupsGetPPD("printer@hostname");

...

unlink(ppd);

cupsGetPrinters()

Usage

int
cupsGetPrinters(char ***printers);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
printersPointer to character pointer array.

Returns

The number of printer printers available.

Description

cupsGetPrinters() gets a list of the available printers. The returned array should be freed using the free() when it is no longer needed.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int  i;
int  num_printers;
char **printers;

...

num_printers = cupsGetPrinters(&printers);

...

if (num_printers > 0)
{
  for (i = 0; i < num_printers; i ++)
    free(printers[i]);

  free(printers);
}

See Also

cupsGetClasses() cupsGetDefault()

cupsLangDefault()

Usage

const char *
cupsLangDefault(void);

Returns

A pointer to the default language structure.

Description

cupsLangDefault() returns a language structure for the default language. The default language is defined by the LANG environment variable. If the specified language cannot be located then the POSIX (English) locale is used.

Call cupsLangFree() to free any memory associated with the language structure when you are done.

Example

#include <cups/language.h>

cups_lang_t *language;
...

language = cupsLangDefault();

...

cupsLangFree(language);

See Also

cupsLangEncoding(), cupsLangFlush(), cupsLangFree(), cupsLangGet() , cupsLangString()

cupsLangEncoding()

Usage

char *
cupsLangEncoding(cups_lang_t *language);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
languageThe language structure.

Returns

A pointer to the encoding string.

Description

cupsLangEncoding() returns the language encoding used for the specified language, e.g. "iso-8859-1", "utf-8", etc.

Example

#include <cups/language.h>

cups_lang_t *language;
char        *encoding;
...

language = cupsLangDefault();
encoding = cupsLangEncoding(language);
...

cupsLangFree(language);

See Also

cupsLangDefault(), cupsLangFlush(), cupsLangFree(), cupsLangGet() , cupsLangString()

cupsLangFlush()

Usage

void
cupsLangFlush(void);

Description

cupsLangFlush() frees all language structures that have been allocated.

Example

#include <cups/language.h>

...

cupsLangFlush();

See Also

cupsLangDefault(), cupsLangEncoding(), cupsLangFree(), cupsLangGet() , cupsLangString()

cupsLangFree()

Usage

void
cupsLangFree(cups_lang_t *language);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
languageThe language structure to free.

Description

cupsLangFree() frees the specified language structure.

Example

#include <cups/language.h>

cups_lang_t *language;
...

cupsLangFree(language);

See Also

cupsLangDefault(), cupsLangEncoding(), cupsLangFlush(), cupsLangGet() , cupsLangString()

cupsLangGet()

Usage

cups_lang_t *
cupsLangGet(const char *name);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
nameThe name of the locale.

Returns

A pointer to a language structure.

Description

cupsLangGet() returns a language structure for the specified locale. If the locale is not defined then the POSIX (English) locale is substituted.

Example

#include <cups/language.h>

cups_lang_t *language;

...

language = cupsLangGet("fr");

...

cupsLangFree(language);

See Also

cupsLangDefault(), cupsLangEncoding(), cupsLangFlush(), cupsLangFree() , cupsLangString()

cupsLangString()

Usage

char *
cupsLangString(cups_lang_t *language,
               int         message);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
languageThe language to query.
messageThe message number.

Returns

A pointer to the message string or NULL if the message is not defined.

Description

cupsLangString() returns a pointer to the specified message string in the specified language.

Example

#include <cups/language.h>

cups_lang_t *language;
char        *s;
...

language = cupsLangGet("fr");

s = cupsLangString(language, CUPS_MSG_YES);

...

cupsLangFree(language);

See Also

cupsLangDefault(), cupsLangEncoding(), cupsLangFlush(), cupsLangFree() , cupsLangGet()

cupsLastError()

Usage

ipp_status_t
cupsLastError(void);

Returns

An enumeration containing the last IPP error.

Description

cupsLastError() returns the last IPP error that occurred. If no error occurred then it will return IPP_OK or IPP_OK_CONFLICT.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

ipp_status_t status;

...

status = cupsLastError();

See Also

cupsCancelJob(), cupsPrintFile()

cupsMarkOptions()

Usage

int
cupsMarkOptions(ppd_file_t    *ppd,
                int           num_options,
                cups_option_t *options);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file to mark.
num_optionsThe number of options in the options array.
optionsA pointer to the options array.

Returns

The number of conflicts found.

Description

cupsMarkOptions() marks options in the PPD file. It also handles mapping of IPP option names and values to PPD option names.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int           num_options;
cups_option_t *options;
ppd_file_t    *ppd;

...

cupsMarkOptions(ppd, num_options, options);

See Also

cupsAddOption(), cupsFreeOptions(), cupsGetOption(), cupsParseOptions()

cupsParseOptions()

Usage

int
cupsParseOptions(const char    *arg,
                 int           num_options,
                 cups_option_t **options);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
argThe string containing one or more options.
num_optionsThe number of options in the options array.
optionsA pointer to the options array pointer.

Returns

The new number of options in the array.

Description

cupsParseOptions() parses the specifies string for one or more options of the form "name=value", "name", or "noname". It can be called multiple times to combine the options from several strings.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int           num_options;
cups_option_t *options;

...

num_options = 0;
options     = (cups_option_t *)0;
num_options = cupsParseOptions(argv[5], num_options, &options);

See Also

cupsAddOption(), cupsFreeOptions(), cupsGetOption(), cupsMarkOptions()

cupsPrintFile()

Usage

int
cupsPrintFile(const char    *printer,
              const char    *filename,
              const char    *title,
	      int           num_options,
	      cups_option_t *options);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
printerThe printer or class to print to.
filenameThe file to print.
titleThe job title.
num_optionsThe number of options in the options array.
optionsA pointer to the options array.

Returns

The new job ID number or 0 on error.

Description

cupsPrintFile() sends a file to the specified printer or class for printing. If the job cannot be printed the error code can be found by calling cupsLastError().

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int           num_options;
cups_option_t *options;
int           jobid;

...

jobid = cupsPrintFile("printer@hostname", "filename.ps", "Job Title",
                      num_options, options);

See Also

cupsCancelJob(), cupsLastError(), cupsPrintFiles()

cupsPrintFiles()

Usage

int
cupsPrintFiles(const char    *printer,
               int           num_files,
               const char    **files,
               const char    *title,
	       int           num_options,
	       cups_option_t *options);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
printerThe printer or class to print to.
num_filesThe number of files to print.
filesThe files to print.
titleThe job title.
num_optionsThe number of options in the options array.
optionsA pointer to the options array.

Returns

The new job ID number or 0 on error.

Description

cupsPrintFiles() sends multiple files to the specified printer or class for printing. If the job cannot be printed the error code can be found by calling cupsLastError().

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int           num_files;
const char    *files[100];
int           num_options;
cups_option_t *options;
int           jobid;

...

jobid = cupsPrintFiles("printer@hostname", num_files, files,
                       "Job Title", num_options, options);

See Also

cupsCancelJob(), cupsLastError(), cupsPrintFile()

cupsPutFd()

Usage

http_status_t
cupsPutFd(http_t     *http,
          const char *resource,
	  int        fd);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection to the server.
resourceThe resource name on the server.
fdThe file descriptor to read from.

Returns

The HTTP status code associated with the request.

Description

cupsPutFd() puts a file to the given HTTP server, reading it from the specified file descriptor and performing any authentication or encryption as required.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

http_t        *http;
int           fd;
http_status_t status;
...

http   = httpConnectEncrypt(cupsServer(), ippPort(), cupsEncryption());
status = cupsPutFd(http, "/admin/cupsd.conf", fd);

httpClose(http);

See Also

cupsGetFd(), cupsGetFile(), cupsPutFile()

cupsPutFile()

Usage

http_status_t
cupsPutFile(http_t     *http,
            const char *resource,
	    const char *filename);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection to the server.
resourceThe resource name on the server.
filenameThe filename to read from.

Returns

The HTTP status code associated with the request.

Description

cupsPutFile() puts a file on the given HTTP server, reading it from the specified filename and performing any authentication or encryption as required.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

http_t        *http;
char          filename[1024];
http_status_t status;
...

http   = httpConnectEncrypt(cupsServer(), ippPort(), cupsEncryption());
status = cupsPutFile(http, "/admin/cupsd.conf", filename);

httpClose(http);

See Also

cupsGetFd(), cupsGetFile(), cupsPutFd()

cupsRasterClose()

Usage

void
cupsRasterClose(cups_raster_t *ras);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
rasThe raster stream to close.

Description

cupsRasterClose() closes the specified raster stream.

Example

#include <cups/raster.h>

cups_raster_t *ras;

...

cupsRasterClose(ras);

See Also

cupsRasterOpen(), cupsRasterReadHeader(), cupsRasterReadPixels(), cupsRasterWriteHeader(), cupsRasterWritePixels()

cupsRasterOpen()

Usage

cups_raster_t *
cupsRasterOpen(int         fd,
               cups_mode_t mode);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
fdThe file descriptor to use.
modeThe mode to use; CUPS_RASTER_READ or CUPS_RASTER_WRITE.

Returns

A pointer to a raster stream or NULL if there was an error.

Description

cupsRasterOpen() opens a raster stream for reading or writing.

Example

#include <cups/raster.h>

cups_raster_t *ras;

...

ras = cupsRasterOpen(0, CUPS_RASTER_READ);

See Also

cupsRasterClose(), cupsRasterReadHeader(), cupsRasterReadPixels(), cupsRasterWriteHeader(), cupsRasterWritePixels()

cupsRasterReadHeader()

Usage

unsigned
cupsRasterReadHeader(cups_raster_t      *ras,
                     cups_page_header_t *header);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
rasThe raster stream to read from.
headerA pointer to a page header structure to read into.

Returns

1 on success, 0 on EOF or error.

Description

cupsRasterReadHeader() reads a page header from the specified raster stream.

Example

#include <cups/raster.h>

int                  line;
cups_raster_t        *ras;
cups_raster_header_t header;
unsigned char        pixels[8192];
...

while (cupsRasterReadHeader(ras, &header))
{
  ...

  for (line = 0; line < header.cupsHeight; line ++)
  {
    cupsRasterReadPixels(ras, pixels, header.cupsBytesPerLine);

    ...
  }
}

See Also

cupsRasterClose(), cupsRasterOpen(), cupsRasterReadPixels(), cupsRasterWriteHeader(), cupsRasterWritePixels()

cupsRasterReadPixels()

Usage

unsigned
cupsRasterReadPixels(cups_raster_t *ras,
                     unsigned char *pixels,
		     unsigned      length);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
rasThe raster stream to read from.
pixelsThe pointer to a pixel buffer.
lengthThe number of bytes of pixel data to read.

Returns

The number of bytes read or 0 on EOF or error.

Description

cupsRasterReadPixels() reads pixel data from the specified raster stream.

Example

#include <cups/raster.h>

int                  line;
cups_raster_t        *ras;
cups_raster_header_t header;
unsigned char        pixels[8192];
...

while (cupsRasterReadHeader(ras, &header))
{
  ...

  for (line = 0; line < header.cupsHeight; line ++)
  {
    cupsRasterReadPixels(ras, pixels, header.cupsBytesPerLine);

    ...
  }
}

See Also

cupsRasterClose(), cupsRasterOpen(), cupsRasterReadHeader(), cupsRasterWriteHeader(), cupsRasterWritePixels()

cupsRasterWriteHeader()

Usage

unsigned
cupsRasterWriteHeader(cups_raster_t      *ras,
                      cups_page_header_t *header);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
rasThe raster stream to write to.
headerA pointer to the page header to write.

Returns

1 on success, 0 on error.

Description

cupsRasterWriteHeader() writes the specified page header to a raster stream.

Example

#include <cups/raster.h>

int                  line;
cups_raster_t        *ras;
cups_raster_header_t header;
unsigned char        pixels[8192];
...

cupsRasterWriteHeader(ras, &header);

for (line = 0; line < header.cupsHeight; line ++)
{
  ...

  cupsRasterWritePixels(ras, pixels, header.cupsBytesPerLine);
}

See Also

cupsRasterClose(), cupsRasterOpen(), cupsRasterReadHeader(), cupsRasterReadPixels(), cupsRasterWritePixels()

cupsRasterWritePixels()

Usage

unsigned
cupsRasterWritePixels(cups_raster_t *ras,
                      unsigned char *pixels,
		      unsigned      length);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
rasThe raster stream to write to.
pixelsThe pixel data to write.
lengthThe number of bytes to write.

Returns

The number of bytes written.

Description

cupsRasterWritePixels() writes the specified pixel data to a raster stream.

Example

#include <cups/raster.h>

int                  line;
cups_raster_t        *ras;
cups_raster_header_t header;
unsigned char        pixels[8192];
...

cupsRasterWriteHeader(ras, &header);

for (line = 0; line < header.cupsHeight; line ++)
{
  ...

  cupsRasterWritePixels(ras, pixels, header.cupsBytesPerLine);
}

See Also

cupsRasterClose(), cupsRasterOpen(), cupsRasterReadHeader(), cupsRasterReadPixels(), cupsRasterWriteHeader()

cupsServer()

Usage

const char *
cupsServer(void);

Returns

A pointer to the default server name.

Description

cupsServer() returns a pointer to the default server name. The server name is stored in a static location and will be overwritten with every call to cupsServer().

The default server is determined from the following locations:

  1. The CUPS_SERVER environment variable,
  2. The ServerName directive in the client.conf file,
  3. The default host, "localhost".

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

const char *server;

server = cupsServer();

See Also

cupsGetPassword(), cupsSetPasswordCB(), cupsSetServer(), cupsSetUser() , cupsUser()

cupsSetDests()

Usage

void
cupsSetDests(int         num_dests,
             cups_dest_t *dests);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
num_destsNumber of destinations.
destsArray of destinations.

Description

cupsSetDests() saves the destination array to disk. If the current UID is 0, the destinations are saved in the /etc/cups/lpoptions file, otherwise they are saved in the ~/.lpoptions file. This function is typically used to save the default options and instances that are set by the user.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int         num_dests;
cups_dest_t *dests;

...

cupsSetDests(num_dests, dests);

See Also

cupsGetDests()

cupsSetEncryption()

Usage

void
cupsSetEncryption(http_encryption_t encryption);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
encryptionThe type of encryption to use.

Description

cupsSetEncryption() sets the default type of encryption to use when connecting with the print server.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

cupsSetEncryption(HTTP_ENCRYPT_REQUIRED);

See Also

cupsEncryption()

cupsSetPasswordCB()

Usage

void
cupsSetPasswordCB(const char *(*cb)(const char *prompt));

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
cbThe password callback function.

Description

cupsSetPasswordCB() sets the callback function to use when asking the user for a password. The callback function must accept a single character string pointer (the prompt string) and return NULL if the user did not enter a password string or a pointer to the password string otherwise.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

const char *
my_password_cb(const char *prompt)
{
  return (getpass(prompt));
}

...

char *password;

...

cupsSetPasswordCB(my_password_cb);
password = cupsGetPassword("Please enter a password:");

See Also

cupsDoAuthentication() , cupsServer(), cupsSetServer(), cupsSetUser(), cupsUser()

cupsSetServer()

Usage

void
cupsSetServer(const char *server);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
serverThe default server to use.

Description

cupsSetServer() sets the default server to use for the CUPS API. If the server argument is NULL, the default server is used.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

cupsSetServer("foo.bar.com");

See Also

cupsServer(), cupsSetPasswordCB(), cupsSetUser(), cupsUser()

cupsSetUser()

Usage

void
cupsSetUser(const char *user);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
userThe user name string to use.

Description

cupsSetUser() sets the default user name for authentication. If the user argument is NULL then the current login user is used.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

...

cupsSetUser("root");

See Also

cupsDoAuthentication() , cupsServer(), cupsSetPasswordCB(), cupsSetServer(), cupsUser()

cupsTempFd()

Usage

int
cupsTempFd(char *filename,
           int  length);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
filenameThe character string to hold the temporary filename.
lengthThe size of the filename string in bytes.

Returns

A file descriptor open for reading and writing.

Description

cupsTempFd() create a temporary filename in the /var/tmp directory or the directory specified by the TMPDIR environment variable.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

int  fd;
char filename[256];

fd = cupsTempFd(filename, sizeof(filename));

See Also

cupsTempFile()

cupsTempFile()

Usage

char *
cupsTempFile(char *filename,
             int  length);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
filenameThe character string to hold the temporary filename.
lengthThe size of the filename string in bytes.

Returns

A pointer to filename.

Description

cupsTempFile() creates a temporary filename in the /var/tmp directory or the directory specified by the TMPDIR environment variable.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

char filename[256];

cupsTempFile(filename, sizeof(filename));

See Also

cupsTempFd()

cupsUser()

Usage

const char *
cupsUser(void);

Returns

A pointer to the current username or NULL if the user ID is undefined.

Description

cupsUser() returns the name associated with the current user ID as reported by the getuid() system call.

Example

#include <cups/cups.h>

const char *user;

user = cupsUser();

See Also

cupsDoAuthentication() , cupsGetPassword(), cupsServer(), cupsSetServer(), cupsSetUser()

httpBlocking()

Usage

void
httpBlocking(http_t *http,
             int    blocking)

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
blocking0 if the connection should be non-blocking, 1 if it should be blocking

Description

The httpBlocking() function sets the blocking mode for the HTTP connection. By default HTTP connections will block (stop) the client program until data is available or can be sent to the server.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

http = httpConnect("server", port);
httpBlocking(http, 0);

See Also

httpCheck(), httpConnect()

httpCheck()

Usage

int
httpCheck(http_t *http);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection

Returns

0 if there is no data pending, 1 otherwise.

Description

The httpCheck() function checks to see if there is any data pending on an HTTP connection.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

if (httpCheck(http))
{
  ... do something ...
}

See Also

httpBlocking(), httpConnect(), httpGets() , httpRead()

httpClearFields()

Usage

void
httpClearFields(http_t *http)

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection

Description

The httpClearFields() function clears all HTTP request fields for the HTTP connection.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpClearFields(http);

See Also

httpConnect(), httpGetField(), httpSetField()

httpClose()

Usage

void
httpClose(http_t *http);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection

Description

The httpClose() function closes an active HTTP connection.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpClose(http);

See Also

httpConnect()

httpConnect()

Usage

http_t *
httpConnect(const char *hostname,
            int        port);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
hostnameThe name or IP address of the server to connect to
portThe port number to use

Returns

A pointer to a HTTP connection structure or NULL if the connection could not be made.

Description

The httpConnect() function opens a HTTP connection to the specified server and port.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

http = httpConnect(cupsServer(), ippPort());

See Also

httpClose(), httpConnectEncrypt(), httpGet(), httpGets(), httpPost(), httpRead(), httpWrite()

httpConnectEncrypt()

Usage

http_t *
httpConnectEncrypt(const char        *hostname,
                   int               port,
                   http_encryption_t encryption);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
hostnameThe name or IP address of the server to connect to
portThe port number to use
encryptionThe level of encryption to use

Returns

A pointer to a HTTP connection structure or NULL if the connection could not be made.

Description

The httpConnectEncrypt() function opens a HTTP connection to the specified server, port, and encryption.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

http = httpConnectEncrypt(cupsServer(), ippPort(), cupsEncryption());

See Also

httpClose(), httpConnect(), httpGet() , httpGets(), httpPost(), httpRead() , httpWrite()

httpDecode64()

Usage

char *
httpDecode64(char       *out,
             const char *in);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
outThe output string
inThe input string

Returns

A pointer to the decoded string.

Description

The httpDecode64() function decodes a base-64 encoded string to the original string.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

char encoded_string[255];
char original_string[255];

httpDecode64(original_string, encoded_string);

See Also

httpEncode64()

httpDelete()

Usage

int
httpDelete(http_t     *http,
           const char *uri);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
uriThe URI to delete

Returns

0 on success, non-zero on failure.

Description

The httpDelete() function sends a HTTP DELETE request to the server.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpDelete(http, "/some/uri");

See Also

httpConnect(), httpSetField(), httpUpdate()

httpEncode64()

Usage

char *
httpEncode64(char       *out,
             const char *in);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
outThe output string
inThe input string

Returns

A pointer to the encoded string.

Description

The httpEncode64() function decodes a base-64 encoded string to the original string.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

char encoded_string[255];
char original_string[255];

httpEncode64(encoded_string, original_string);

See Also

httpDecode64()

httpEncryption()

Usage

int
httpEncryption(http_t            *http,
               http_encryption_t encryption);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection.
encryptionThe desired level of encryption.

Returns

0 on success, -1 on error.

Description

httpEncryption() sets the encryption level for the HTTP connection.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

...

httpEncryption(http, HTTP_ENCRYPT_REQUIRED);

See Also

httpConnectEncrypt()

httpError()

Usage

int
httpError(http_t *http);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection

Returns

The last error that occurred or 0 if no error has occurred.

Description

The httpError() function returns the last error that occurred on the HTTP connection.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

if (httpError(http))
{
  ... show an error message ...
}

See Also

httpConnect()

httpFlush()

Usage

void
httpFlush(http_t *http);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection

Description

The httpFlush() function flushes any remaining data left from a GET or POST operation.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpFlush(http);

See Also

httpConnect(),

httpGet()

Usage

int
httpGet(http_t     *http,
        const char *uri);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
uriThe URI to get

Returns

0 on success, non-zero on failure.

Description

The httpGet() function sends a HTTP GET request to the server.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpGet(http, "/some/uri");

See Also

httpConnect(), httpSetField(), httpUpdate()

httpGets()

Usage

char *
httpGets(char   *line,
         int    length,
         http_t *http)

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
lineThe string to fill with a line from the HTTP connection
lengthThe maximum length of the string
httpThe HTTP connection

Returns

A pointer to the string or NULL if no line could be retrieved.

Description

The httpGets() function is used to read a request line from the HTTP connection. It is not normally used by a client program.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;
char   line[1024];

if (httpGets(line, sizeof(line), http))
{
  ... process the line ...
}

See Also

httpConnect(), httpUpdate()

httpGetDateString()

Usage

const char *
httpGetDateString(time_t time)

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
timeThe UNIX date/time value

Returns

A pointer to a static string containing the HTTP date/time string for the specified UNIX time value.

Description

The httpGetDateString() function generates a date/time string suitable for HTTP requests from a UNIX time value.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

puts(httpGetDateString(time(NULL)));

See Also

httpGetDateTime()

httpGetDateTime()

Usage

time_t
httpGetDateTime(const char *date)

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
dateThe HTTP date/time string

Returns

A UNIX time value.

Description

The httpGetDateTime() function converts a HTTP date/time string to a UNIX time value.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

printf("%d\n", httpGetDateTime("Fri, 30 June 2000 12:34:56 GMT"));

See Also

httpGetDateString()

httpGetField()

Usage

const char *
httpGetField(http_t       *http,
             http_field_t field);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
fieldThe HTTP field

Returns

A pointer to the field value string.

Description

The httpGetField() function returns the current value for the specified HTTP field.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpGet(http, "/some/uri");
while (httpUpdate(http) == HTTP_CONTINUE);

puts(httpGetField(http, HTTP_FIELD_CONTENT_TYPE));

See Also

httpConnect(), httpGetSubField(), httpSetField()

httpGetHostByName()

Usage

struct hostent	*
httpGetHostByName(const char *name);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
nameName or IP address to lookup.

Returns

NULL if the host could not be found or a pointer to a host entry containing one or more addresses.

Description

httpGetHostByName() is a portable wrapper around the gethostbyname() function which handles both hostnames and IP addresses.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

struct hostent *hostaddr;

hostaddr = httpGetHostByName("foo.bar.com");

httpGetLength()

Usage

int
httpGetLength(http_t *http);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection.

Returns

The content length of the response or MAX_INT if chunking is used.

Description

httpGetLength() returns the content length of a response.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

...

printf("The length of the response is %d bytes.\n", httpGetLength(http));

See Also

httpGet(), httpPost()

httpGetSubField()

Usage

const char *
httpGetSubField(http_t       *http,
                http_field_t field,
		const char   *name,
		char         *value);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection.
fieldThe HTTP field.
nameThe name of the subfield.
valueThe string to hold the subfield value.

Returns

A pointer to the subfield value string or NULL if it does not exist.

Description

The httpGetSubField() function returns a subfield value from the specified HTTP field. The destination string buffer must be at least HTTP_MAX_VALUE bytes in length.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;
char   value[HTTP_MAX_VALUE];

httpGet(http, "/some/uri");
while (httpUpdate(http) == HTTP_CONTINUE);

puts(httpGetSubField(http, HTTP_FIELD_CONTENT_TYPE, "charset", value));

See Also

httpConnect(), httpGetField(), httpSetField()

httpHead()

Usage

int
httpHead(http_t     *http,
         const char *uri);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
uriThe URI to head

Returns

0 on success, non-zero on failure.

Description

The httpHead() function sends a HTTP HEAD request to the server.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpHead(http, "/some/uri");

See Also

httpConnect(), httpSetField(), httpUpdate()

httpInitialize()

Usage

void httpInitialize(void);

Description

The httpInitialize() function initializes the networking code as needed by the underlying platform. It is called automatically by the httpConnect() function.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

httpInitialize();

See Also

httpConnect()

httpMD5()

Usage

char *
httpMD5(const char *username,
        const char *realm,
        const char *passwd,
        char       md5[33]);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
usernameThe authenticating user name.
realmThe authenticating realm name.
passwdThe authenticating password.
md5The MD5 sum string.

Returns

A pointer to the MD5 sum string.

Description

httpMD5() computes the MD5 hash of the username, realm, and password as required by the HTTP Digest specification.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

char md5[33];

...

httpMD5("user", "realm", "password", md5);

See Also

httpMD5Final(), httpMD5String()

httpMD5Final()

Usage

char *
httpMD5Final(const char *nonce,
             const char *method,
             const char *resource,
             char       md5[33]);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
nonceThe server nonce value.
methodThe HTTP method (GET, POST, etc.)
resourceThe resource path.
md5The MD5 sum string.

Returns

The MD5 sum string.

Description

httpMD5Final() appends the nonce, method, and resource to the specified MD5 sum.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

char md5[33];

...

httpMD5Final("nonce", "GET", "/jobs", md5);

See Also

httpMD5(), httpMD5String()

httpMD5String()

Usage

char *
httpMD5String(const md5_byte_t *sum,
              char             md5[33]);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
sumThe raw MD5 sum data.
md5The MD5 sum string.

Returns

The MD5 sum string.

Description

httpMD5String() converts the raw MD5 sum value to a string.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

md5_byte_t sum[16];
char       md5[33];

...

httpMD5String(sum, md5);

See Also

httpMD5(), httpMD5Final()

httpOptions()

Usage

int
httpOptions(http_t     *http,
            const char *uri);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
uriThe URI to check for options

Returns

0 on success, non-zero on failure.

Description

The httpOptions() function sends a HTTP OPTIONS request to the server.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpOptions(http, "/some/uri");

See Also

httpConnect(), httpSetField(), httpUpdate()

httpPost()

Usage

int
httpPost(http_t     *http,
         const char *uri);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
uriThe URI to post to

Returns

0 on success, non-zero on failure.

Description

The httpPost() function sends a HTTP POST request to the server.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpPost(http, "/some/uri");

See Also

httpConnect(), httpSetField(), httpUpdate()

httpPrintf()

Usage

int
httpPrintf(http_t     *http,
           const char *format,
           ...);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
formatA printf-style format string

Returns

The number of bytes written.

Description

The httpPrintf() function sends a formatted string to the HTTP connection. It is normally only used by the CUPS API and scheduler.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpPrintf(http, "GET / HTTP/1.1 \r\n");

See Also

httpConnect()

httpPut()

Usage

int
httpPut(http_t     *http,
        const char *uri);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
uriThe URI to put

Returns

0 on success, non-zero on failure.

Description

The httpPut() function sends a HTTP PUT request to the server.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpDelete(http, "/some/uri");

See Also

httpConnect(), httpSetField(), httpUpdate()

httpRead()

Usage

int
httpRead(http_t *http,
         char   *buffer,
         int    length);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
bufferThe buffer to read into
lengthThe number of bytes to read

Returns

The number of bytes read or -1 on error.

Description

The httpRead() function reads data from the HTTP connection, possibly the result of a GET or POST request.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;
char buffer[1024];
int  bytes;

httpGet(http, "/");
while (httpUpdate(http) != HTTP_CONTINUE);
while ((bytes = httpRead(http, buffer, sizeof(buffer) - 1)) > 0)
{
  buffer[bytes] = '\0';
  fputs(buffer, stdout);
}

See Also

httpConnect(), httpWrite()

httpReconnect()

Usage

int
httpReconnect(http_t *http);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection

Returns

0 on success, non-zero on failure.

Description

The httpReconnect() function reconnects to the HTTP server. This is usually done automatically if the HTTP functions detect that the server connection has terminated.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpReconnect(http);

See Also

httpConnect()

httpSeparate()

Usage

void
httpSeparate(const char *uri,
             char       *method,
             char       *username,
             char       *host,
             int        *port,
             char       *resource);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
uriThe URI to separate
methodThe method (scheme) of the URI
usernameThe username (and password) portion of the URI, if any
hostThe hostname portion of the URI, if any
portThe port number for the URI, either as specified or as default for the method/scheme
resourceThe resource string, usually a filename on the server

Description

The httpSeparate() function separates the specified URI into its component parts. The method, username, hostname, and resource strings should be at least HTTP_MAX_URI characters long to avoid potential buffer overflow problems.

Example

char uri[HTTP_MAX_URI];
char method[HTTP_MAX_URI];
char username[HTTP_MAX_URI];
char host[HTTP_MAX_URI];
char resource[HTTP_MAX_URI];
int  port;

...

httpSeparate(uri, method, username, host, &port, resource);

See Also

httpConnect()

httpSetField()

Usage

void
httpSetField(http_t       *http,
             http_field_t field,
             const char   *value);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
fieldThe HTTP field
valueThe string value for the field

Description

The httpSetField() function sets the current value for the specified HTTP field.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpSetField(http, HTTP_FIELD_AUTHORIZATION, "Basic dfdr34453454325"));
httpGet(http, "/some/uri");
while (httpUpdate(http) == HTTP_CONTINUE);

See Also

httpConnect(), httpGetField()

httpStatus()

Usage

const char *
httpStatus(http_status_t status);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
statusThe HTTP status code from the server.

Returns

The standard HTTP status text associated with the status code.

Description

httpStatus() returns the standard HTTP status text associated with the status code.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

...

puts(httpStatus(http->status));

httpTrace()

Usage

int
httpTrace(http_t     *http,
          const char *uri);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
uriThe URI to trace

Returns

0 on success, non-zero on failure.

Description

The httpTrace() function sends a HTTP TRACE request to the server.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;

httpTrace(http, "/some/uri");

See Also

httpConnect(), httpSetField(), httpUpdate()

httpUpdate()

Usage

http_status_t
httpUpdate(http_t *http);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection

Returns

The HTTP status of the current request.

Description

The httpUpdate() function updates the current request status. It is used after any DELETE, GET, HEAD, OPTIONS, POST, PUT, or TRACE request to finalize the HTTP request and retrieve the request status.

Since proxies and the current blocking mode can cause the request to take longer, programs should continue calling httpUpdate() until the return status is not the constant value HTTP_CONTINUE .

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;
http_status_t status;

httpGet(http, "/some/uri");
while ((status = httpUpdate(http)) == HTTP_CONTINUE);
printf("Request status is %d\n", status);

See Also

httpConnect(), httpDelete(), httpGet() , httpHead(), httpOptions(), httpPost() , httpPut(), httpTrace()

httpWrite()

Usage

int
httpWrite(http_t *http,
          char   *buffer,
          int    length);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
bufferThe buffer to read into
lengthThe number of bytes to read

Returns

The number of bytes read or -1 on error.

Description

The httpWrite() function reads data from the HTTP connection, possibly the result of a GET or POST request.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>

http_t *http;
FILE *fp;
char buffer[1024];
int  bytes;

httpPost(http, "/");

while ((bytes = fread(buffer, 1, sizeof(buffer), fp)) > 0)
  httpWrite(http, buffer, bytes);

while (httpUpdate(http) != HTTP_CONTINUE);

while ((bytes = httpRead(http, buffer, sizeof(buffer) - 1)) > 0)
{
  buffer[bytes] = '\0';
  fputs(buffer, stdout);
}

See Also

httpConnect(), httpRead()

ippAddBoolean()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddBoolean(ipp_t      *ipp,
              ipp_tag_t  group,
              const char *name,
	      char       value);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
nameThe name of attribute
valueThe boolean value

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddBoolean() function adds a single boolean attribute value to the specified IPP request.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;

ippAddBoolean(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, "my-jobs", 1);

See Also

ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger(), ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange() , ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddBooleans()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddBooleans(ipp_t      *ipp,
               ipp_tag_t  group,
               const char *name,
               int        num_values,
               const char *values);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
nameThe name of attribute
num_valuesThe number of values
valuesThe boolean values

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddBooleans() function adds one or more boolean attribute values to the specified IPP request. If the values pointer is NULL then an array of num_values false values is created.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;
char values[10];

ippAddBooleans(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, "some-attribute", 10, values);

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger(), ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange() , ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddDate()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddDate(ipp_t       *ipp,
           ipp_tag_t   group,
           const char  *name,
           ipp_uchar_t *value);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
nameThe name of attribute
valueThe date value

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddDate() function adds a single date-time attribute value to the specified IPP request.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;

ippAddDate(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, "some-attribute", 
           ippTimeToDate(time(NULL));

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddInteger(), ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange() , ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings(), ippTimeToDate()

ippAddInteger()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddInteger(ipp_t      *ipp,
              ipp_tag_t  group,
              ipp_tag_t  tag,
              const char *name,
              int        value);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
tagThe type of integer value (IPP_TAG_INTEGER or IPP_TAG_ENUM)
nameThe name of attribute
valueThe integer value

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddInteger() function adds a single integer attribute value to the specified IPP request.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;

ippAddInteger(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, "limit", 100);

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange() , ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddIntegers()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddIntegers(ipp_t      *ipp,
               ipp_tag_t  group,
               ipp_tag_t  tag,
               const char *name,
               int        num_values,
               const int  *values);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
tagThe type of integer value (IPP_TAG_INTEGER or IPP_TAG_ENUM)
nameThe name of attribute
num_valuesThe number of values
valuesThe integer values

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddIntegers() function adds one or more integer attribute values to the specified IPP request. If the values pointer is NULL then an array of num_values 0 values is created.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;
int values[100];

ippAddIntegers(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, "some-attribute", 100, values);

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger() , ippAddRange(), ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddRange()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddRange(ipp_t      *ipp,
            ipp_tag_t  group,
            const char *name,
            int        low,
            int        high);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
nameThe name of attribute
lowThe lower value
highThe higher value

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddRange() function adds a single range attribute value to the specified IPP request.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;

ippAddRange(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, "page-ranges", 1, 10);

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger() , ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddRanges()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddRanges(ipp_t      *ipp,
             ipp_tag_t  group,
             const char *name,
             int        num_values,
             const int  *lows,
             const int  *highs);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
nameThe name of attribute
num_valuesThe number of range values
lowsThe lower values
highsThe higher values

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddRanges() function adds one or more range attribute values to the specified IPP request. If the values pointer is NULL then an array of num_values 0,0 ranges is created.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;
int lows[2];
int highs[2];

ippAddRanges(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, "page-ranges", 2, lows, highs);

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger() , ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddResolution()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddResolution(ipp_t      *ipp,
                 ipp_tag_t  group,
                 const char *name,
                 int        xres,
                 int        yres,
                 ipp_res_t  units);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
nameThe name of attribute
xresThe horizontal resolution
yresThe vertical resolution
unitsThe resolution units

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddResolution() function adds a single resolution attribute value to the specified IPP request.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;

ippAddBoolean(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, "printer-resolution",
              720, 720, IPP_RES_PER_INCH);

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger() , ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange(), ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddResolutions()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddResolutions(ipp_t           *ipp,
                  ipp_tag_t       group,
                  const char      *name,
                  int             num_values,
                  const int       *xres,
                  const int       *yres,
                  const ipp_res_t *units);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
nameThe name of attribute
num_valuesThe number of resolution values
xresThe horizontal resolutions
yresThe vertical resolutions
unitsThe resolution units

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddResolutions() function adds one or more resolution attribute values to the specified IPP request. If the values pointer is NULL then an array of num_values 0,0 resolutions is created.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;
int xres[5];
int yres[5];
ipp_res_t units[5];

ippAddBoolean(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, "printer-resolutions-supported",
              5, xres, yres, units);

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger() , ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange(), ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddSeparator()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddSeparator(ipp_t *ipp);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request

Returns

A pointer to the new separator or NULL if the separator could not be created.

Description

The ippAddSeparator() function adds a group separator to the specified IPP request.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;

ippAddSeparator(ipp);

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger() , ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange(), ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddString(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddString()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddString(ipp_t      *ipp,
             ipp_tag_t  group,
             ipp_tag_t  tag,
             const char *name,
             const char *charset,
             const char *value);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
tagThe type of string value
nameThe name of attribute
charsetThe character set for the string
valueThe string value

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddString() function adds a single string attribute value to the specified IPP request. For IPP_TAG_NAMELANG and IPP_TAG_TEXTLANG strings, the charset value is provided with the string to identify the string encoding used. Otherwise the charset value is ignored.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;

ippAddString(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, IPP_TAG_NAME, "job-name",
             NULL, "abc123");

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger() , ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange(), ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddStrings()

ippAddStrings()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippAddStrings(ipp_t      *ipp,
              ipp_tag_t  group,
              ipp_tag_t  tag,
              const char *name,
              int        num_values,
              const char *charset,
              const char **values);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request
groupThe IPP group
tagThe type of string value
nameThe name of attribute
num_valuesThe number of strings
charsetThe character set for the strings
valuesThe string values

Returns

A pointer to the new attribute or NULL if the attribute could not be created.

Description

The ippAddStrings() function adds one or more string attribute values to the specified IPP request. For IPP_TAG_NAMELANG and IPP_TAG_TEXTLANG strings, the charset value is provided with the strings to identify the string encoding used. Otherwise the charset value is ignored. If the values pointer is NULL then an array of num_values NULL strings is created.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;
char *values[2] = { "one", "two" };

ippAddStrings(ipp, IPP_TAG_OPERATION, IPP_TAG_KEYWORD, "attr-name",
              2, NULL, values);

See Also

ippAddBoolean(), ippAddBooleans(), ippAddDate(), ippAddInteger() , ippAddIntegers(), ippAddRange(), ippAddRanges(), ippAddResolution(), ippAddResolutions(), ippAddSeparator(), ippAddString()

ippDateToTime()

Usage

time_t
ippDateToTime(const ipp_uchar_t date[11]);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
dateThe IPP date-time value

Returns

A UNIX time value.

Description

The ippDateToTime() function converts an IPP date-time value to a UNIX time value.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_uchar_t date[11];

printf("UNIX time is %d\n", ippDateToTime(date));

See Also

ippTimeToDate()

ippDelete()

Usage

void
ippDelete(ipp_t *ipp);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request or response

Description

The ippDelete() function deletes all memory used by an IPP request or response.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;

ippDelete(ipp);

See Also

ippNew()

ippErrorString()

Usage

const char *
ippErrorString(ipp_status_t error);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
errorIPP error code.

Returns

The standard text representation of the IPP error code.

Description

ippErrorString() returns the standard text representation of the IPP error code.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

puts(ippErrorString(IPP_OK));

See Also

cupsLastError()

ippFindAttribute()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippFindAttribute(ipp_t      *ipp,
                 const char *name,
                 ipp_tag_t  tag);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request or response
nameThe name of the attribute
tagThe required value tag for the attribute or IPP_TAG_ZERO for any type of value.

Returns

A pointer to the first occurrence of the requested attribute, or NULL if it was not found.

Description

ippFindAttribute() finds the first occurrence of the named attribute. The tag parameter restricts the search to a specific value type - use IPP_TAG_ZERO to find any value with the name.

The value tags IPP_TAG_NAME and IPP_TAG_TEXT match the name/text values with or without the language code.

Example

ipp_attribute_t *attr;

attr = ippFindAttribute(response, "printer-state-message", IPP_TAG_TEXT);
while (attr != NULL)
{
  puts(attr->values[0].string.text);

  attr = ippFindNextAttribute(response, "printer-state-message", IPP_TAG_TEXT);
}

See Also

cupsDoFileRequest(), cupsDoRequest(), ippDelete() , ippFindNextAttribute() , ippNew()

ippFindNextAttribute()

Usage

ipp_attribute_t *
ippFindNextAttribute(ipp_t      *ipp,
                     const char *name,
                     ipp_tag_t  tag);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request or response
nameThe name of the attribute
tagThe required value tag for the attribute or IPP_TAG_ZERO for any type of value.

Returns

A pointer to the next occurrence of the requested attribute, or NULL if it was not found.

Description

ippFindNextAttribute() finds the next occurrence of the named attribute. The tag parameter restricts the search to a specific value type - use IPP_TAG_ZERO to find any value with the name.

The value tags IPP_TAG_NAME and IPP_TAG_TEXT match the name/text values with or without the language code.

Example

ipp_attribute_t *attr;

attr = ippFindAttribute(response, "printer-state-message", IPP_TAG_TEXT);
while (attr != NULL)
{
  puts(attr->values[0].string.text);

  attr = ippFindNextAttribute(response, "printer-state-message", IPP_TAG_TEXT);
}

See Also

cupsDoFileRequest(), cupsDoRequest(), ippDelete() , ippFindNextAttribute() , ippNew()

ippLength()

Usage

int
ippLength(ipp_t *ipp);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ippThe IPP request or response

Returns

The total encoded length of the IPP request or response in bytes.

Description

ippLength() returns the length of the IPP request or response in bytes.

Example

printf("The length of the response is %d bytes.\n", ippLength(response));

See Also

ippDelete(), ippNew()

ippNew()

Usage

ipp_t *
ippNew(void);

Returns

A pointer to a new IPP request or response.

Description

The ippNew() function creates a new IPP request or response.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_t *ipp;

ipp = ippNew();

See Also

ippDelete()

ippPort()

Usage

int
ippPort(void);

Returns

The default TCP/IP port number for IPP requests.

Description

The ippPort() function returns the default IPP port number for requests.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>
#include <cups/ipp.h>

http_t *http;

http = httpConnect(cupsServer(), ippPort());

See Also

cupsServer(), ippSetPort()

ippRead()

Usage

ipp_state_t
ippRead(http_t *http,
        ipp_t  *ipp);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
ippThe IPP request or response

Returns

The current read state.

Description

The ippRead() function reads IPP attributes from the specified HTTP connection. Programs should continue calling ippRead() until IPP_ERROR or IPP_DATA is returned.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>
#include <cups/ipp.h>

http_t *http;
ipp_t *ipp;
ipp_state_t status;

ipp = ippNew();

while ((status = ippRead(http, ipp)) != IPP_ERROR)
  if (status == IPP_DATA)
    break;

if (status == IPP_DATA)
{
  ... read additional non-IPP data using httpRead() ...
}

See Also

ippWrite()

ippSetPort()

Usage

void
ippSetPort(int port);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
portThe port number to use

Description

The ippSetPort() function sets the default IPP port number for requests.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>
#include <cups/ipp.h>

...

ippSetPort(8631);

See Also

ippPort()

ippTimeToDate()

Usage

ipp_uchar_t *
ippTimeToDate(time_t time);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
timeThe UNIX time value

Returns

A static pointer to an IPP date-time value.

Description

The ippTimeToDate() function converts a UNIX time to an IPP date-time value.

Example

#include <cups/ipp.h>

ipp_uchar_t *date;

date = ippTimeToDate(time(NULL));

See Also

ippDateToTime()

ippWrite()

Usage

ipp_state_t
ippWrite(http_t *http,
         ipp_t  *ipp);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
httpThe HTTP connection
ippThe IPP request or response

Returns

The current write state.

Description

The ippWrite() function writes IPP attributes to the specified HTTP connection. Programs should continue calling ippWrite() until IPP_ERROR or IPP_DATA is returned.

Example

#include <cups/http.h>
#include <cups/ipp.h>

http_t *http;
ipp_t *ipp;
ipp_state_t status;

ipp = ippNew();
... add attributes ...

while ((status = ippWrite(http, ipp)) != IPP_ERROR)
  if (status == IPP_DATA)
    break;

if (status == IPP_DATA)
{
  ... read additional non-IPP data using httpWrite() ...
}

See Also

ippRead()

ppdClose()

Usage

void
ppdClose(ppd_file_t *ppd);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file

Description

The ppdClose() function frees all memory associated with the PPD file.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

ppdClose(ppd);

See Also

ppdOpen(), ppdOpenFd(), ppdOpenFile()

ppdCollect()

Usage

int
ppdCollect(ppd_file_t    *ppd,
           ppd_section_t section,
           ppd_choice_t  ***choices);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file.
sectionThe document section to collect.
choicesThe array of option choices that are marked.

Returns

The number of options collected.

Description

ppdCollect() collects all of the marked options in the specified section, sorts them by their order dependency values, and returns an array that can be used to emit option commands in the proper order. It is normally used by the ppdEmit*() functions.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t   *ppd;
int          num_choices;
ppd_choice_t **choices;

...

num_choices = ppdCollect(ppd, PPD_ORDER_JCL, &choices);

See Also

ppdEmit(), ppdEmitFd(), ppdEmitJCL()

ppdConflicts()

Usage

int
ppdConflicts(ppd_file_t *ppd);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file

Returns

The number of option conflicts in the file.

Description

The ppdConflicts() function returns the number of conflicts with the currently selected options.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

printf("%d conflicts\n", ppdConflicts(ppd));

See Also

cupsMarkOptions(), ppdIsMarked(), ppdMarkDefaults(), ppdMarkOption()

ppdEmit()

Usage

int
ppdEmit(ppd_file_t    *ppd,
        FILE          *file,
        ppd_section_t section);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
fileThe file to write to
sectionThe option section to write

Returns

0 on success, -1 on error.

Description

The ppdEmit() function sends printer-specific option commands to the specified file.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

ppdEmit(ppd, stdout, PPD_ORDER_PAGE);

See Also

ppdEmitFd()

ppdEmitFd()

Usage

int
ppdEmitFd(ppd_file_t    *ppd,
          int           fd,
          ppd_section_t section);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
fdThe file descriptor to write to
sectionThe option section to write

Returns

0 on success, -1 on error.

Description

The ppdEmitFd() function sends printer-specific option commands to the specified file descriptor.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

ppdEmitFd(ppd, 1, PPD_ORDER_PAGE);

See Also

ppdEmit(), ppdEmitJCL()

ppdEmitJCL()

Usage

int
ppdEmitJCL(ppd_file_t    *ppd,
           FILE          *file,
	   int           job_id,
           const char    *user,
	   const char    *title);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
fileThe file to write to
job_idThe job ID number
userThe job user
titleThe job name

Returns

0 on success, -1 on error.

Description

The ppdEmitJCL() function sends printer-specific job control commands to the specified file. For printers that support the HP Printer Job Language (PJL) job control language, the output also contains a display string that usually appears on the printer's LCD.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

ppdEmitJCL(ppd, stdout, job_id, user, title);

See Also

ppdEmit(), ppdEmitFd()

ppdFindAttr()

Usage

ppd_attr_t *
ppdFindAttr(ppd_file_t *ppd,
            const char *keyword,
	    const char *spec);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
keywordThe name of the attribute
specThe option keyword associated with the attribute or NULL if you don't care.

Returns

A pointer to the attribute data or NULL if the attribute does not exist.

Description

The ppdFindAttr() function returns a pointer to the first occurrence of the attribute in the PPD file.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;
ppd_attr_t *attr;

attr = ppdFindAttr(ppd, "RequiresPageRegion", "Upper");

See Also

ppdFindNextAttr()

ppdFindChoice()

Usage

ppd_choice_t *
ppdFindChoice(ppd_option_t *option,
              const char   *choice);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
optionA pointer to the option
choiceThe name of the choice

Returns

A pointer to the choice data or NULL if the choice does not exist.

Description

The ppdFindChoice() function returns a pointer to the choice data for the specified option.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;
ppd_option_t *option;
ppd_choice_t *choice;

option = ppdFindOption(ppd, "PageSize");
choice = ppdFindChoice(option, "Letter");

See Also

ppdFindMarkedChoice(), ppdFindOption()

ppdFindMarkedChoice()

Usage

ppd_choice_t *
ppdFindMarkedChoice(ppd_file_t *ppd,
                    const char *keyword);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
keywordThe name of the option

Returns

A pointer to the choice data or NULL if the choice does not exist or is not marked.

Description

The ppdFindMarkedChoice() function returns a pointer to the marked choice data for the specified option.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;
ppd_choice_t *choice;

choice = ppdFindMarkedChoice(ppd, "PageSize");

See Also

ppdFindChoice(), ppdFindOption()

ppdFindNextAttr()

Usage

ppd_attr_t *
ppdFindNextAttr(ppd_file_t *ppd,
        	const char *keyword,
		const char *spec);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdA pointer to the PPD file
keywordThe name of the attribute
specThe option keyword associated with the attribute or NULL if you don't care.

Returns

A pointer to the attribute data or NULL if the attribute does not exist.

Description

The ppdFindNextAttr() function returns a pointer to the next occurrence of the attribute in the PPD file.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;
ppd_attr_t *attr;

for (attr = ppdFindAttr(ppd, "cupsICCProfile", NULL);
     attr != NULL;
     attr = ppdFindNextAttr(ppd, "cupsICCProfile", NULL))
{
  printf("*%s %s/%s: \"%s\"\n",
         attr->name, attr->spec, attr->text,
	 attr->value ? attr->value : "(none)");
}

See Also

ppdFindAttr()

ppdFindOption()

Usage

ppd_option_t *
ppdFindOption(ppd_file_t *ppd,
              const char *keyword);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
keywordThe name of the option

Returns

A pointer to the option data or NULL if the option does not exist.

Description

The ppdFindOption() function returns a pointer to the option data for the specified option.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;
ppd_option_t *option;

option = ppdFindOption(ppd, "PageSize");

See Also

ppdFindChoice(), ppdFindMarkedChoice()

ppdIsMarked()

Usage

int
ppdIsMarked(ppd_file_t *ppd,
            const char *keyword,
            const char *choice);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
keywordThe name of the option
choiceThe name of the option choice

Returns

1 if the choice is marked, 0 otherwise.

Description

The ppdIsMarked() function returns whether or not the specified option choice is marked.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

printf("Letter size %s selected.\n",
       ppdIsMarked(ppd, "PageSize", "Letter") ? "is" : "is not");

See Also

cupsMarkOptions(), ppdConflicts(), ppdIsMarked(), ppdMarkDefaults(), ppdMarkOption()

ppdMarkDefaults()

Usage

void
ppdMarkDefaults(ppd_file_t *ppd);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file

Description

The ppdMarkDefaults() function marks all of the default choices in the PPD file.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

ppdMarkDefaults(ppd);

See Also

cupsMarkOptions(), ppdConflicts(), ppdIsMarked(), ppdMarkDefaults(), ppdMarkOption()

ppdMarkOption()

Usage

int
ppdMarkOption(ppd_file_t *ppd,
              const char *keyword,
              const char *choice);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
keywordThe name of the option
choiceThe name of the choice

Returns

The number of conflicts in the PPD file.

Description

The ppdMarkOption() function marks the specified option choice.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

ppdMarkOption(ppd, "PageSize", "Letter");

See Also

cupsMarkOptions(), ppdConflicts(), ppdIsMarked(), ppdMarkDefaults(), ppdMarkOption()

ppdOpen()

Usage

ppd_file_t *
ppdOpen(FILE *file);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
fileThe file to read from

Returns

A pointer to a PPD file structure or NULL if the PPD file could not be read.

Description

The ppdOpen() function reads a PPD file from the specified file into memory.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;
FILE *file;

file = fopen("filename.ppd", "rb");
ppd = ppdOpen(file);
fclose(file);

See Also

ppdClose(), ppdOpenFd(), ppdOpenFile()

ppdOpenFd()

Usage

ppd_file_t *
ppdOpenFd(int fd);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
fdThe file descriptor to read from

Returns

A pointer to a PPD file structure or NULL if the PPD file could not be read.

Description

The ppdOpenFd() function reads a PPD file from the specified file descriptor into memory.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;
int        fd;

fd = open("filename.ppd", O_RDONLY);
ppd = ppdOpenFd(fd);
close(fd);

See Also

ppdClose(), ppdOpen(), ppdOpenFile()

ppdOpenFile()

Usage

ppd_file_t *
ppdOpenFile(const char *filename);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
filenameThe name of the file to read from

Returns

A pointer to a PPD file structure or NULL if the PPD file could not be read.

Description

The ppdOpenFile() function reads a PPD file from the named file into memory.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

ppd = ppdOpenFile("filename.ppd");

See Also

ppdClose(), ppdOpen(), ppdOpenFd()

ppdPageLength()

Usage

float
ppdPageLength(ppd_file_t *ppd,
              const char *name);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
nameThe name of the page size

Returns

The length of the specified page size in points or 0 if the page size does not exist.

Description

The ppdPageLength() function returns the page length of the specified page size.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

printf("Length = %.0f\n", ppdPageLength(ppd, "Letter"));

See Also

ppdPageLength(), ppdPageSize(), ppdPageWidth()

ppdPageSize()

Usage

ppd_size_t *
ppdPageSize(ppd_file_t *ppd,
            const char *name);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
nameThe name of the page size

Returns

A pointer to the page size record of the specified page size in points or NULL if the page size does not exist.

Description

The ppdPageSize() function returns the page size record for the specified page size.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;
ppd_size_t *size;

size = ppdPageSize(ppd, "Letter");
if (size != NULL)
{
  printf(" Width = %.0f\n", size->width);
  printf("Length = %.0f\n", size->length);
  printf("  Left = %.0f\n", size->left);
  printf(" Right = %.0f\n", size->right);
  printf("Bottom = %.0f\n", size->bottom);
  printf("   Top = %.0f\n", size->top);
}

See Also

ppdPageLength(), ppdPageWidth()

ppdPageWidth()

Usage

float
ppdPageWidth(ppd_file_t *ppd,
             const char *name);

Arguments

ArgumentDescription
ppdThe PPD file
nameThe name of the page size

Returns

The width of the specified page size in points or 0 if the page size does not exist.

Description

The ppdPageWidth() function returns the page width of the specified page size.

Example

#include <cups/ppd.h>

ppd_file_t *ppd;

printf("Width = %.0f\n", ppdPageWidth(ppd, "Letter"));

See Also

ppdPageLength(), ppdPageSize()