CUPS Software Users Manual


CUPS-SUM-1.1.21
Easy Software Products
Copyright 1997-2004, All Rights Reserved

Table of Contents



Preface 1 - Printing System Overview 2 - Using the Printing System 3 - Standard Printer Options 4 - Saving Printer Options and Defaults A - Software License Agreement

Preface

This software users manual describes how to use the Common UNIX Printing SystemTM ("CUPSTM") Version 1.1.21.

System Overview

CUPS provides a portable printing layer for UNIX®-based operating systems. It has been developed by Easy Software Products to promote a standard printing solution for all UNIX vendors and users. CUPS provides the System V and Berkeley command-line interfaces.

CUPS uses the Internet Printing Protocol ("IPP") as the basis for managing print jobs and queues. The Line Printer Daemon ("LPD") Server Message Block ("SMB"), and AppSocket (a.k.a. JetDirect) protocols are also supported with reduced functionality. CUPS adds network printer browsing and PostScript Printer Description ("PPD") based printing options to support real-world printing under UNIX.

CUPS includes an image file RIP that supports printing of image files to non-PostScript printers. A customized version of GNU Ghostscript 7.05 for CUPS called ESP Ghostscript is available separately to support printing of PostScript files within the CUPS driver framework. Sample drivers for Dymo, EPSON, HP, and OKIDATA printers are included that use these filters.

Drivers for thousands of printers are provided with our ESP Print Pro software, available at:

    http://www.easysw.com/printpro/

CUPS is licensed under the GNU General Public License and GNU Library General Public License. Please contact Easy Software Products for commercial support and "binary distribution" rights.

Document Overview

This software users manual is organized into the following sections:

Notation Conventions

Various font and syntax conventions are used in this guide. Examples and their meanings and uses are explained below:

Example   Description
 
lpstat
lpstat(1)
   The names of commands; the first mention of a command or function in a chapter is followed by a manual page section number.
 
/var
/usr/share/cups/data/testprint.ps
    File and directory names.
 
Request ID is Printer-123    Screen output.
 
lp -d printer filename ENTER    Literal user input; special keys like ENTER are in ALL CAPS.
 
12.3   Numbers in the text are written using the period (.) to indicate the decimal point.

Abbreviations

The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual:

Other References

1 - Printing System Overview

This chapter provides an overview of how the Common UNIX Printing System works.

The Printing Problem

For years the printing problem has plagued UNIX. Unlike Microsoft® Windows® or Mac OS, UNIX has no standard interface or system in place for supporting printers. Among the solutions currently available, the Berkeley and System V printing systems are the most prevalent.

These printing systems support line printers (text only) or PostScript printers (text and graphics), and with some coaxing they can be made to support a full range of printers and file formats. However, because each varient of the UNIX operating system uses a different printing system than the next developing printer drivers for a wide range of printers and operating systems is extremely difficult. That combined with the limited volume of customers for each UNIX varient has forced most printer vendors to give up supporting UNIX entirely.

CUPS is designed to eliminate the printing problem. One common printing system can be used by all UNIX varients to support the printing needs of users. Printer vendors can use its modular filter interface to develop a single driver program that supports a wide range of file formats with little or no effort. Since CUPS provides both the System V and Berkeley printing commands, users (and applications) can reap the benefits of this new technology with no changes.

The Technology

CUPS is based upon an emerging Internet standard called the Internet Printing Protocol. IPP has been embraced by dozens of printer and printer server manufacturers and is supported by Microsoft Windows 2000.

IPP defines a standard protocol for printing as well as managing print jobs and printer options like media size, resolution, and so forth. Like all IP-based protocols, IPP can be used locally or over the Internet to printers hundreds or thousands of miles away. Unlike other protocols, however, IPP also supports access control, authentication, and encryption, making it a much more capable and secure printing solution than older ones.

IPP is layered on top of the Hyper-Text Transport Protocol ("HTTP") which is the basis of web servers on the Internet. This allows users to view documentation, check status information on a printer or server, and manage their printers, classes, and jobs using their web browser.

CUPS provides a complete IPP/1.1 based printing system that provides Basic, Digest, and local certificate authentication and user, domain, or IP-based access control. TLS encryption will be available in future versions of CUPS.

Jobs

Each file or set of files that is submitted for printing is called a job. Jobs are identified by a unique number starting at 1 and are assigned to a particular destination, usually a printer. Jobs can also have options associated with them such as media size, number of copies, and priority.

Classes

CUPS supports collections of printers known as classes. Jobs sent to a class are forwarded to the first available printer in the class.

Filters

Filters allow a user or application to print many types of files without extra effort. Print jobs sent to a CUPS server are filtered before sending them to a printer. Some filters convert job files to different formats that the printer can understand. Others perform page selection and ordering tasks.

CUPS provides filters for printing many types of image files, HP-GL/2 files, PDF files, and text files. CUPS also supplies PostScript and image file Raster Image Processor ("RIP") filters that convert PostScript or image files into bitmaps that can be sent to a raster printer.

Backends

Backends perform the most important task of all - they send the filtered print data to the printer.

CUPS provides backends for printing over parallel, serial, and USB ports, and over the network via the IPP, JetDirect (AppSocket), and Line Printer Daemon ("LPD") protocols. Additional backends are available in network service packages such as the SMB backend included with the popular SAMBA software.

Backends are also used to determine the available devices. On startup each backend is asked for a list of devices it supports, and any information that is available. This allows the parallel backend to tell CUPS that an EPSON Stylus Color 600 printer is attached to parallel port 1, for example.

Printer Drivers

Printer drivers in CUPS consist of one of more filters specific to a printer. CUPS includes sample printer drivers for Hewlett-Packard LaserJet and DeskJet printers and EPSON 9-pin, 24-pin, Stylus Color, and Stylus Photo printers. While these drivers do not generate optimal output for the different printer models, they do provide basic printing and demonstrate how you can write your own printer drivers and incorporate them into CUPS.

Networking

Printers and classes on the local system are automatically shared with other systems on the network. This allows you to setup one system to print to a printer and use this system as a printer server or spool host for all of the others. Users may then select a local printer by name or a remote printer using "name@server".

CUPS also provides implicit classes, which are collections of printers and/or classes with the same name. This allows you to setup multiple servers pointing to the same physical network printer, for example, so that you aren't relying on a single system for printing. Because this also works with printer classes, you can setup multiple servers and printers and never worry about a single point of failure unless all of the printers and servers go down!

2 - Using the Printing System

This chapter shows you how to submit, query, and cancel print jobs to different printers.

Submitting Files for Printing

CUPS provides both the System V (lp(1)) and Berkeley ( lpr(1)) printing commands. Type the following command to print a file to the default (or only) printer on the system:

or:

CUPS understands many different types of files directly, including PostScript and image files. This allows you to print from inside your applications or at the command-line, whichever is most convenient!

Choosing a Printer

Many systems will have more than one printer available to the user. These printers can be attached to the local system via a parallel, serial, or USB port, or available over the network.

Use the lpstat(1) command to see a list of available printers:

The -p option specifies that you want to see a list of printers, and the -d option reports the current default printer or class.

Use the -d option with the lp command to print to a specific printer:

or the -P option with the lpr command:

Setting Printer Options

For many types of files, the default printer options may be sufficient for your needs. However, there may be times when you need to change the options for a particular file you are printing.

The lp and lpr commands allow you to pass printer options using the -o option:

The available printer options vary depending on the printer. The standard options are described in Chapter 3, "Standard Printing Options".

Printing Multiple Copies

Both the lp and lpr commands have options for printing more than one copy of a file:

Copies are normally not collated for you. Use the -o Collate=True option to get collated copies :

Checking the Printer Status from the Command-Line

The lpstat command can be used to check for jobs that you have submitted for printing:

The jobs are listed in the order they will be printed. Use the -p option to see which files and printers are active:

Use the -o and -p options together to show the jobs and the printers:

Checking the Printer Status from the Web

Since CUPS uses the Internet Printing Protocol, it is also a fully-functional web server. To use your web browser to monitor the printers on your system, open the URL:

From there you can view the status of classes, jobs, and printers with the click of a button!

Canceling a Print Job

The cancel(1) and lprm(1) commands cancel a print job:

The job-id is the number that was reported to you by the lp or lpstat commands.

3 - Standard Printer Options

This chapter describes the standard printer options that are available when printing with the lp and lpr commands.

General Options

The following options apply when printing all types of files.

Selecting the Media Size, Type, and Source

The -o media=xyz option sets the media size, type, and/or source:

The available media sizes, types, and sources depend on the printer, but most support the following options (case is not significant):

The actual options supported are defined in the printer's PPD file in the PageSize, InputSlot, and MediaType options.

Setting the Orientation

The -o landscape option will rotate the page 90 degrees to print in landscape orientation:

Printing On Both Sides of the Paper

The -o sides=two-sided-short-edge and -o sides=two-sided-long-edge options will enable duplexing on the printer, if the printer supports it. The -o sides=two-sided-short-edge option is suitable for landscape pages, while the -o sides=two-sided-long-edge option is suitable for portrait pages:

The default is to print single-sided:

Banner Options

The following options apply when printing all types of files.

Selecting the Banner Page(s)

The -o jobsheets=start,end option sets the banner page(s) to use for a job:

If only one banner file is specified, it will be printed before the files in the job. If a second banner file is specified, it is printed after the files in the job.

The available banner pages depend on the local system configuration; CUPS includes the following banner files:

Document Options

The following options apply when printing all types of files.

Selecting a Range of Pages

The -o page-ranges=pages option selects a range of pages for printing:

As shown above, the pages value can be a single page, a range of pages, or a collection of page numbers and ranges separated by commas. The pages will always be printed in ascending order, regardless of the order of the pages in the page-ranges option.

The default is to print all pages.

Selecting Even or Odd Pages

Use the -o page-set=set option to select the even or odd pages:

The default is to print all pages.

Setting the Output Order

The the -o outputorder=order option to set the output order of all pages:

N-Up Printing

The -o number-up=value option selects N-Up printing. N-Up printing places multiple document pages on a single printed page. CUPS supports 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 16-Up formats; the default format is 1-Up:

The -o page-border=value option chooses the border to draw around each page:

The -o number-up-layout=value option chooses the layout of the pages on each output page:

Mirroring Prints

You can mirror a print using the -o mirror option:

This is useful for printing mirrored pages on transfer paper, for T shirts, mugs, etc.

Setting the Brightness

You can control the overall brightness of the printed output using the -o brightness=percent option:

Values greater than 100 will lighten the print, while values less than 100 will darken it.

Setting the Gamma Correction

You can control the overall gamma correction of the printed output using the -o gamma=value option:

Values greater than 1000 will lighten the print, while values less than 1000 will darken it. The default gamma is 1000.

Text Options

The following options apply when printing text files.

Setting the Number of Characters Per Inch

The -o cpi=value option sets the number of characters per inch:

The default characters per inch is 10.

Setting the Number of Lines Per Inch

The -o lpi=value option sets the number of lines per inch:

The default lines per inch is 6.

Setting the Number of Columns

The -o columns=value option sets the number of text columns:

The default number of columns is 1.

Setting the Page Margins

Normally the page margins are set to the hard limits of the printer. Use the -o page-left=value, -o page-right=value , -o page-top=value, and -o page-bottom=value options to adjust the page margins:

The value argument is the margin in points; each point is 1/72 inch or 0.35mm.

Pretty Printing

The -o prettyprint option puts a header at the top of each page with the page number, job title (usually the filename), and the date. Also, C and C++ keywords are highlighted, and comment lines are italicized:

Image Options

The following options apply when printing image files.

Positioning the Image

The -o position=name option specifies the position of the image on the page:

Scaling the Image

The -o scaling=percent, -o ppi=value, and -o natural-scaling=percent options change the size of a printed image:

The scaling=percent value is a number from 1 to 800 specifying the size in relation to the page (not the image.) A scaling of 100 percent will fill the page as completely as the image aspect ratio allows. A scaling of 200 percent will print on up to 4 pages.

The ppi=value value is a number from 1 to 1200 specifying the resolution of the image in pixels per inch. An image that is 3000x2400 pixels will print 10x8 inches at 300 pixels per inch, for example. If the specified resolution makes the image larger than the page, multiple pages will be printed to satisfy the request.

The natural-scaling=percent value is a number from 1 to 800 specifying the size in relation to the natural image size. A scaling of 100 percent will print the image at its natural size, while a scaling of 50 percent will print the image at half its natural size. If the specified scaling makes the image larger than the page, multiple pages will be printed to satisfy the request.

Adjusting the Hue (Tint) of an Image

The -o hue=value option will adjust the hue of the printed image, much like the tint control on your television:

The value argument is a number from -360 to 360 and represents the color hue rotation. The following table summarizes the change you'll see with different colors:

Originalhue=-45hue=45
RedPurpleYellow-orange
GreenYellow-greenBlue-green
YellowOrangeGreen-yellow
BlueSky-bluePurple
MagentaIndigoCrimson
CyanBlue-greenLight-navy-blue

The default hue adjustment is 0.

Adjusting the Saturation (Color) of an Image

The -o saturation=percent option adjusts the saturation of the colors in an image, much like the color knob on your television:

The percent argument specifies the color saturation from 0 to 200. A color saturation of 0 produces a black-and-white print, while a value of 200 will make the colors extremely intense.

The default saturation is 100.

HP-GL/2 Options

The following options apply to HP-GL/2 files.

Printing in Black

The -o blackplot option specifies that all pens should plot in black:

The default is to use the colors defined in the plot file or the standard pen colors defined in the HP-GL/2 reference manual from Hewlett Packard.

Fitting the Plot on the Page

The -o fitplot option specifies that the plot should be scaled to fit on the page:

The default is to use the absolute distances specified in the plot file.

NOTE:

This feature depends upon an accurate plot size (PS) command in the HP-GL/2 file. If no plot size is given in the file than the HP-GL/2 filter assumes the plot is ANSI E size.

Setting the Default Pen Width

The -o penwidth=value option specifies the default pen width for HP-GL/2 files:

The pen width value specifies the pen width in micrometers. The default value of 1000 produces lines that are 1 millimeter in width. Specifying a pen width of 0 produces lines that are exactly 1 pixel wide.

NOTE:

This option is ignored when the pen widths are set in the plot file.

Raw or Unfiltered Output

The -o raw option allows you to send files directly to a printer without filtering. This is sometimes required when printing from applications that provide their own "printer drivers" for your printer:

The -l option can also be used with the lpr command to send files directly to a printer:

4 - Saving Printer Options and Defaults

This chapter describes how to save printer options for your printer and set your own default printer.

Printer Options

Each printer supports a large number of options, which you learned about in Chapter 3, "Standard Printer Options". Rather than specifying these options each time you print a file, CUPS allows you to save them as "default" options for the printer.

The lpoptions(1) command saves the options for your printers. Like the lp and lpr commands, it accepts printer options using the -o argument:

Once saved, any lp or lpr command will use them when you print.

Note:

Running the lpoptions command as the root user (or any user with a UID of 0) will set the default options for all users. The root account does not have its own set of default options.

Setting Options for a Specific Printer

The previous example shows how to set the options for the default printer. The -p printer option specifies the options are for another printer:

Removing Options

The previous two examples shows how to set options for the default and a specific printer. Below, shows you how to remove the saved option using the -r argument:

Viewing the Current Defaults

The lpoptions command can also be used to show the current options by not specifying any new options on the command-line:

Viewing Options for a Specific Printer

You can display the supported options using the lpoptions command with the -l option, as follows:

Setting the Default Printer

The administrator normally will set a system-wide default printer that is normally used as the default printer by everyone. Use the -d printer option to set your own default printer:

The printer can be local (deskjet) or remote ( deskjet@server).

Printer Instances

Besides setting options for each print queue, CUPS supports printer instances which allow you to define several different sets of options for each printer. You specify a printer instance using the slash (/) character:

The lp and lpr commands also understand this notation:

Removing Instances

Use the -x printer/instance option to remove a printer instance that you no longer need:

The -x option only removes the default options for that printer and instance; the original print queue will remain until deleted with the lpadmin(8) command by the administrator.

A - Software License Agreement

Common UNIX Printing System License Agreement

Copyright 1997-2004 by Easy Software Products
44141 AIRPORT VIEW DR STE 204
HOLLYWOOD, MARYLAND 20636-3142 USA

Voice: +1.301.373.9600
Email: cups-info@cups.org
WWW: http://www.cups.org

Introduction

The Common UNIX Printing SystemTM, ("CUPSTM"), is provided under the GNU General Public License ("GPL") and GNU Library General Public License ("LGPL"), Version 2, with exceptions for Apple operating systems and the OpenSSL toolkit. A copy of the exceptions and licenses follow this introduction.

The GNU LGPL applies to the CUPS API library, located in the "cups" subdirectory of the CUPS source distribution and in the "cups" include directory and library files in the binary distributions. The GNU GPL applies to the remainder of the CUPS distribution, including the "pdftops" filter which is based upon Xpdf and the CUPS imaging library.

For those not familiar with the GNU GPL, the license basically allows you to:

What this license does not allow you to do is make changes or add features to CUPS and then sell a binary distribution without source code. You must provide source for any new drivers, changes, or additions to the software, and all code must be provided under the GPL or LGPL as appropriate. The only exceptions to this are the portions of the CUPS software covered by the Apple operating system license exceptions outlined later in this license agreement.

The GNU LGPL relaxes the "link-to" restriction, allowing you to develop applications that use the CUPS API library under other licenses and/or conditions as appropriate for your application.

License Exceptions

In addition, as the copyright holder of CUPS, Easy Software Products grants the following special exceptions:

  1. Apple Operating System Development License Exception;
    1. Software that is developed by any person or entity for an Apple Operating System ("Apple OS-Developed Software"), including but not limited to Apple and third party printer drivers, filters, and backends for an Apple Operating System, that is linked to the CUPS imaging library or based on any sample filters or backends provided with CUPS shall not be considered to be a derivative work or collective work based on the CUPS program and is exempt from the mandatory source code release clauses of the GNU GPL. You may therefore distribute linked combinations of the CUPS imaging library with Apple OS-Developed Software without releasing the source code of the Apple OS-Developed Software. You may also use sample filters and backends provided with CUPS to develop Apple OS-Developed Software without releasing the source code of the Apple OS-Developed Software.
    2. An Apple Operating System means any operating system software developed and/or marketed by Apple Computer, Inc., including but not limited to all existing releases and versions of Apple's Darwin, Mac OS X, and Mac OS X Server products and all follow-on releases and future versions thereof.
    3. This exception is only available for Apple OS-Developed Software and does not apply to software that is distributed for use on other operating systems.
    4. All CUPS software that falls under this license exception have the following text at the top of each source file:
      This file is subject to the Apple OS-Developed Software exception.
  2. OpenSSL Toolkit License Exception;
    1. Easy Software Products explicitly allows the compilation and distribution of the CUPS software with the OpenSSL Toolkit.

No developer is required to provide these exceptions in a derived work.

Trademarks

Easy Software Products has trademarked the Common UNIX Printing System, CUPS, and CUPS logo. You may use these names and logos in any direct port or binary distribution of CUPS. Please contact Easy Software Products for written permission to use them in derivative products. Our intention is to protect the value of these trademarks and ensure that any derivative product meets the same high-quality standards as the original.

Binary Distribution Rights

Easy Software Products also sells rights to the CUPS source code under a binary distribution license for vendors that are unable to release source code for their drivers, additions, and modifications to CUPS under the GNU GPL and LGPL. For information please contact us at the address shown above.

The Common UNIX Printing System provides a "pdftops" filter that is based on the Xpdf software. For binary distribution licensing of this software, please contact:

Derek B. Noonburg
Email: derekn@foolabs.com
WWW: http://www.foolabs.com/xpdf/

Support

Easy Software Products sells software support for CUPS as well as a commercial printing product based on CUPS called ESP Print Pro. You can find out more at our web site:

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    If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.

    It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.

    This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

  9. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
  10. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

    Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

  11. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

NO WARRANTY

  1. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
  2. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Version 2, June 1991

Copyright (C) 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

[This is the first released version of the library GPL.  It is
 numbered 2 because it goes with version 2 of the ordinary GPL.]

Preamble

The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.

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When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

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TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

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NO WARRANTY

15. BECAUSE THE LIBRARY IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE LIBRARY, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE LIBRARY "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE LIBRARY IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE LIBRARY PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

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END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS